9: development of dyslexia Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 9: development of dyslexia Deck (14)
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1
Q

What is dyslexia?

A

Unexpected reading failure

Poor reading despite favorable conditions, contrast: a developmental disorder

2
Q

What is reading?

A
  • Highly complex skill

How writing can be turned into speech

3
Q

How do fluent readers read?

A
  • Quick leaps (8/9 letters jumps)
  • Fixation point: process small area, 3-4 letters left and 15 right, on every content word
  • Seldom go back
4
Q

How do beginning readers read?

A
  • One word at the time
  • Longer fixation on each word
  • Shorter leaps
  • Backtrack more often
5
Q

What a phoneme?

A

Smallest unit of sound within a spoken word p/i/t

6
Q

Whats a grapheme?

A

Letter or letters that represent a speech sound t/ea/r

7
Q

Whats a morpheme?

A

smallest unit of meaning within a spoken word

8
Q

Whats the difference between shallow and deep/intransparent language?

A

Shallow: a specific letter is always pronounced the same

Deep: relations between letters and sounds are more arbitrary > difficult to read

9
Q

What can you say about IQ?

A

No IQ reading discrepancy but reading below age expected levels.

10
Q

What are the 2 predictors of dyslexia?

A

phonological awareness: awareness of sound structure of words
rapid naming: ease of access to representation stored in memory

11
Q

How does dyslexia manifest itself in different languages?

A
  • Deficits in phonological awareness more predicitve in deep languages
  • Deficits in rapid naming are more predictive in shallow languages
12
Q

What do the tiers of intervention look like?

A
Tier 1: classroom instruction
Tier 2: additional teaching in class by teacher
Tier 3: extra education by specialist
13
Q

What are characteristics of effective treatment?

A
  • Training and focus on phonological awareness while reading
  • Training letter-sound connections
  • Training short visual language stimuli
  • Training rule based strategies for spelling
  • Repeated reading
14
Q

What do we still have to find out?

A
  • How to teach children a foreign language?

- Underlying causes