4: Development of ADHD Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 4: Development of ADHD Deck (19)
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1
Q

Whats the prevalence?

A

Children: +- 3-7% (1 in every school class)
Adults: +- 2.5%

(No increase in prevalence over the last 30 years)

2
Q

What can you say about comorbidity?

A

= high

Differentation can be challenging because many disorders cause inattention/hyperactivity

3
Q

What does ADHD look like throughout the life span? Symptoms and impairment?

A

Preschool: behavioral problems, hyperactivity
School-age: academic and social problems, low self-esteem, oppositional behavior
- Adolescent: planning, behavioral and social problems, low self-esteem, addiciton
- Student: cognitive under-functioning, difficulty finding job, performance anxiety, substance abuse
- Adult: low self-esteem, job probs, substance abuse, relational probs

4
Q

What are the two symptom clusters in DSM?

A

Inattention & Hyperactivity/impulsivity

> Heterogenity!

5
Q

What are causes of ADHD?

A

A multifactorial disorder:

  • genetic factors
  • prenatal factors
  • interactions with environment
6
Q

Later in life, childhood ADHD is a risk factor for? (7)

A
  • Traffic incidents
  • Substance abuse
  • Aggression/delinquency
  • Sexual risk-taking
  • Gambling problems
  • Financial risk taking
  • Food related risk taking
7
Q

Later in life, childhood ADHD is a risk factor for?

A
  • Traffic incidents
  • Substance abuse
  • Aggression/delinquency
  • Sexual risk-taking
  • Gambling problems
  • Financial risk taking
  • Food related risk taking
8
Q

Is ADHD forever?

A

Some kids ‘grow out’ of ADHD, many do not. > prevalence decreases with age
20-45% meet full criteria as adults
25-48% have impairing symptoms

9
Q

Is ADHD delayed development?

A

Could be cause: birthdate effect: more often diagnosed in youngest children in the class

10
Q

Does adult onset ADHD exist?

A

DSM: symptoms before age 12

- Discussion: some say no, some say yes

11
Q

What’s the Functional Working Memory (WM) Model?

A

ADHD symptoms are the result of overwhelmed demands on impaired working memory.

12
Q

What does the WM model predict?

A
  • WM demands are often too high for kids with ADHD
  • Kids with ADHD seek for behavioral ways to compensate
  • Hyperactivity stimulates their brain.
13
Q

Empirical evidence for WM model?

A

Better WM performance in kids with ADHD with higher activity level

More difficult tasks, kids with ADHD move more.

14
Q

Whats the Delay Aversion Theory?

A

ADHD symptoms as a choice to avoid delay, because delay is seen as aversive.

15
Q

Whats the dual pathway model?

A

ADHD explained by impairment in:

  1. executive functioning
  2. motivational/reward systems
16
Q

Implications of the Dovis et al. study on dual pathway model?

A
  • Kids with ADHD need additional motivation, especially on long tasks (>5 min)
  • Nevertheless, their performance is worse relative to children without ADHD
  • Strategies to diminish working memory demands should be applied
17
Q

Implications of the Dovis et al. study on dual pathway model?

A
  • Kids with ADHD need additional motivation, especially on long tasks (>5 min)
  • Nevertheless, their performance is worse relative to children without ADHD
  • Strategies to diminish working memory demands should be applied
18
Q

Treatment for executive pathway?

A

Diminish demands:

  • divide tasks in multiple steps
  • provide structure
  • use to-do lists
  • keep instructions short and repeat them
  • ignore motor activity
  • prevent distraction
19
Q

Treatment for motivational pathway?

A

Increase motivation

  • use reward systems
  • reinforce desired behavior immediately
  • make desired behavior explicit
  • create attractive tasks
  • anticipate for problems