1: Evolution and Development of Mental Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1: Evolution and Development of Mental Disorders Deck (11)
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1
Q

What is the paradox of mental disorders?

A
  • Mental disorders are common
  • High heritability
  • People with mental disorders get less children

Why did natural selection not eliminate mental disorders from the population?

2
Q

Why do people with mental disorders get less children?

A

Mental disorders cause lower fertility in both men and women which causes lower reproductive succes.

3
Q

In short, what are the 3 general resolutions of the paradox?

A
  1. Ancestral neutrality
  2. Balancing selection
  3. Polygenic mutation-selection balance
4
Q

Explain ancestral neutrality.

A

Mental disorders tend to have a negative impact on reproductive succes nowadays in modern countries, but the fitness effects were neutral in ancestral times

5
Q

What is the criticism on ancestral neutrality?

A

The prevalence is still high, where you would expect it to go down.

6
Q

Explain balancing selection.

A

Mental disorders tend to have a negative impact on reproductive succes, but this is counterbalanced by positive effects.

7
Q

What is the criticism on balancing selection?

A

There is no balance, because in fact the reproductive succes is lower.

8
Q

What is the criticism on balancing selection?

A

There is no balance, because in fact the reproductive succes is lower.
- Also brothers and sisters of mental disordered dont get more kids

9
Q

Explain polygenic mutation-selection balance.

A

Mental disorders are the result of unavoidable mutations in one or more of the thousands of genes that underlie human behavior

10
Q

What is the criticism on polygenic mutation-selection balance?

A

Heritability is high

11
Q

What is proof for the polygenic mutation-selection balance?

A
  • No succes in ‘gene hunting’, so must be polygenic
  • High comorbidity among disorders
  • Association between inbreeding and disorders
  • Association between paternal age and disorders > if man older, more mutations in sperm.