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Flashcards in 2 Physiology 2nd LE Deck (123):
1

What is serum

Plasma minus clotting factors

2

What is plasma

Blood without formed elements

3

Plasma protein that carries lipids and hormones

Albumin

4

Plasma protein that carries hormones and immune function

Globulin

5

Define hematocrit

Volume percentage of rbcs in blood

6

Why rbc has a finite lifespan

Without a nucleus

7

Are immature RBCs

Reticulocytes

8

Significant of reticulocyte count test

Indicator rate of rbc production secondary to demand like hemolysis and prolonged exposure to high altitudes where there's lower oxygen levels

9

Primary stimulator of rbc production

Epo

10

Transcription complex which responds to changes in oxygen. Binds to epo gene and triggers epo protein formation

hypoxia inducible factoe

11

Factors needed in rbc production

FolateVit b12

12

Importance of folate

Dna synthesis, maturation of rbcs

13

Importance of vit b12

Incorporates circulating folate into developing rbcs for final maturation of rbcs

14

What is pernicious anemia

Failure to produce intejnsic faxtor, deficient b12 absorption, large megaloblastic rbcs

15

Storage form of iron

Ferritin

16

Protein carrier of iron

Transferrin

17

Type of stem call committed to erythrocyte maturation

CFU-E

18

Normal rbc in men and women

4.5 to 6 million rbcs / microliter4.2-5 million

19

Contractile protein which help in cell shape and flexibility

Spectrin

20

Describe MCV

Hct/number of rbcsToo small or too large rbcs

21

Average concentration of hemoglobin in a given volume of blood

Mean cell hemoglobin concentration

22

Average liefspan of ebc

120

23

Fate of globin chains in rbc recycling

Broken down into amino acids for new protein synthesis

24

Fate of iron in rbc recycling

Transferred by transferrin to bone marrow and used for new hemoglobin

25

Abnromal variation in the size if the cell

Anisocytosis

26

Abnormal variationnin the ahape of rbcs

Poikilocytosis

27

RBCs form stacks or rolls

Rouleaux

28

Wbc couns exceeding 50,000 with normal looking wbc

Lukemoid reaction

29

Wbc couns exceeding 50,000 with abnormal looking wbc

Leukemia

30

Wbc elevated in bacterial infection

Neutrophil

31

Monocyte in the peripheral blood

Macrophage

32

Elevated during allergic reactions; acid-loving; migrate to tissues with parasitic infection

Eosinophils

33

Work with eosinophils for systemic allergic reaction

Basophils

34

Effect of histamine and bradykinin in inflammation

Vasodilation and increased permeability of capillaries

35

5 signs of inflammation

Rubor: rednessDolor: painTumor: swellingCalor: warmth/heatLoss of function

36

Main adhesion molecule for capture and initiation of rolling of wbc in the inflammatory process; makes the endothelium sticky

P-selectin

37

Mediate the firm adhesion if wbcs in the endothelium

E-selectin

38

Stimulates transmigration of wbc

Interleukin 8, cadherin, and cd11/cd18

39

First line if defense in the blood

Neutrophils

40

First line of defense in the tissues, more powerful than neutrophils

Macrophages

41

Half-life of macrophages

17 hours

42

Macrophages in the liver

Kupfer cell

43

Macrophages in the dermal layes

Langerhans cell

44

Macrophages in the brain

Microglia

45

Maxrophages in the lungs

Alveolar macrophage

46

Phases of hemostasis

Vascular phase -vasoconstrictionPlatelet phase - platelet plug formationCoagulation phase - coagulation (blood clotting)Growth of fibrous tissueFibrinolytic phas - lysis of clot

47

A large glycoprotein which mediates platelet adhesion to injured endothelium; stabilizes factor VIII

Von willebrand factor

48

Secreted by healthy vessels to inhibit platelet aggregation

Prostacyclin

49

Blood test which measure the function of extrinsic and common pathways of clotting

Prothrombin time

50

Role of calcium in clotting

Allows clotting to start

51

Test for clotting which measures the integrity of the intrinsic system (factors XII, XI, VII, IX) and common pathway

Activated partial thromboplastin time

52

Precipitates and de-ionizes calcium to prevent clotting

Citrate and oxalate

53

Three essential steps in clotting

Formation of prothrombin activator complexConversion of prothrombin to thrombinConversion of fibrinogen to fibrin fibers

54

Actual enzyme that will convert prothrombin to thrombin

Active factor x

55

Platelet activators (5 important)

Collagen -from damaged epitheliumADP - from damaged RBCs and activated plateletsThromboxane A2 - from activated plateletsPlatelet factor 3 - from plateletsThrombin -circulating in the plasma

56

Clotting factors 2,7,9,10

II- prothrombinVII - proconvertin (stable factor)IX - plasma thromboplastin component, christmas factorX - stuart-prower factor

57

Forms the prothrombin activator complex

Factor Xa combines with factor V and phospholipids

58

Point at which both extrinsic and intrinsic pathway converge to form the common pathway

Activation of factor X

59

Is a protease that splits prothrombin and activates enzyme thrombin

factor Xa

60

The most potent physiological activator Catalyzes the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin

Thrombin

61

Cross-links adjacent fibrin fibers via covalent bondingStrengthens and stabilizes the clot

Factor XIII

62

Breaks down fibrin inti soluble fragments

Plasmin

63

Classes of hemorrhage

Class I -750 mlClass II - beyond 750 ml, sympathetic stimulation inc HR, cyanotic, cool extremities, hyperventilationClass III - hemorrhagic shock, drop in BP, confusion, PR >100 bpmClass IV - vital organ perfusion is failing

64

Baroreceptor reflexes

Fall in bp causes activation of sympathetic adrenergic symptoms:Constricted blood vessels, increased hr, increased contractility

65

Chemoreceptor reflexes in systemic acidosis due to decreased blood flow to organs

Sympathetic response

66

Essential cofactor of factors 2,7,9,10

Vitamin K

67

Missing factor in hemophilia

Factor VIII

68

Function of the c3b in the complement system

For opsonization and phagocytosisBinds to surface of the pathogen and makes it more "palatable" for phagocytosis

69

The convergence of all the three pathways of the complement system

Formation of c3b

70

Immunoglobulin in primary immune response

IgM

71

Immunoglobulin in secondary immune response

IgG

72

Helper T cells which help b lymphocytes to produce antibodies

Cd4+ t cells / helper t cells

73

Cytotoxic t cells

Cd8+ T cells

74

Complication of measles

Pneumonia

75

Infant born before completing __ weeks of gestation are prone to developing normochromic and normocytic anemia

32 weeks

76

Anemia of prematurity resolves at __ months

3-6 months

77

Basic workup for anemia includes (lab tests)

CbcType and coombs testReticulocyte countReview of blood smearSerum bilirubin measurement

78

Physiologic regulator of platelet production

Thrombopoietin

79

Platelet disorder where there is defective clot retractionGood platelet count but only half are functional

Thrombasthenia

80

A hemorrhagic disease characterized by extravasation if blood into the tissues, the skin, and mucous membranes causing ecchymoses and petechiae

Vascular purpura

81

Coagulation system of fetus begins at

10-11 weeks gestation

82

Vitamin-k depending clotting factors

ii, vii, ix, x

83

Coagulation factors deficient in hemophilia

xiii, ix, xi

84

Clotting disorder where platelets have been fully utilized and consumed, resulting to bleeding all over

Disseminated intravascular coagulation

85

Week of gestation when surfactant are secreted and detectable amounts are in the amniotic fluid

27 weeks if gestation

86

Start of respiratory development in uteri where major airways began to develop (weeks)

4 weeks

87

Pneumocyte type lining the alveoli which are flat with large cytoplasmic extensions; primary lining cells of the alveoli

Type I pneumocyte

88

Pneumocyte type lining the alveoli that is thicker and the only ones secreting surfactants in vivo

Type II pneumocyte

89

Functions to stabilize the alveoli, prevent collapse, and reduces work of breathing by decreasing surface tension forces

Surfactant

90

Marks the transition period from a very dependent respiratory system to an independent system of newborn

First breath

91

2 zones if lower respiratory tract

1-16 generations: conducting zone (anatomic dead space)17-23 generations: respiratory zone (gas exchanger site)

92

Main inspiratory muscle

Diaphragm

93

Maximum volume to which the lungs can be expanded with the greatest effort

Total lung capacity

94

Amount of air remaining inside the lungs after normal/quiet expiration

Functional residual capacity

95

Maximal amount of air one could still inspire

Inspiratory capacity

96

Maximal amount of air a person can expel after first filling to maximum extent and then expiring to maximum extent

Vital capacity or forced vital capacity

97

Term which means the ease by which the lungs can be expanded

Compliance

98

Is the pressure difference between the alveoli and the mouth divided by a flow rate

Airway resistance

99

Inhibits large TV and overdistentionInspiratory inhibitory reflex

Hering-Breur inflation reflex

100

Lung receptors stimulated by chemicals injected in the pulmonary circulation, and engorgement of the pulmonary capillaries, increase in interstitial fluid volume

J receptors

101

Stage of pediatric lung development:Primary bronchi elongate into the mesenchyme and divide into 2 main bronchi

Embryonic

102

Stage of pediatric lung development:Mesenchyme differentiates into cartilage smooth muscle, and connective tissueAll major conducting airways have formed

Pseudoglandular

103

Stage of pediatric lung development:Development of respiratory bronchioles with terminal sacs/primitive alveoliAbility to retain air at end-expirationAbility to maintain functional residual capacityMay survive but with difficulty

Canalicular

104

Stage of pediatric lung development:First time contact between the air space and blood streamImmature surfactant

Saccular

105

Mature lung surfactant ratio

2:1

106

Stage of pediatric lung development:With mature surfactant

Alveolar

107

May be injected to the mother to initiate maturation of alveoli

Steroid

108

Total lung capacity of the newborn

160 ml

109

Causes a more reactive airway and may cause bronchospasms

Histamine and methylcholine

110

Factors opposing first breath

Alveolar surface tensionViscosity of lung fluidDegree of lung complianceMucus, blood, meconium, amniotic fluid

111

Inhibits fetal breathing movements

Prostaglandin E2

112

Prostaglandin inhibitors whih stimulate FBMs

Indomethacin

113

Depresses ventilation in the neonate

Prostaglandin E1 and E2, and adenosine

114

Protein-rich edema fluid inhibits

Surfactant function

115

Persistent acidemia inhibits

Surfactant synthesis

116

How glutamate affects breathing in the newborn

Stimulates respiration

117

How glycine and GABA affects breathing

Essential for generating respiratory rhythm

118

Age-specific respiratory pathogen in utero

TORCH

119

Age-specific respiratory pathogen at birth

Group B strep/chlamydia

120

Age-specific respiratory pathogen during infancy:

H influenza, parainfluenza

121

Age-specific respiratory pathogen for school-aged children

RSV

122

Classification of tracheal epithelium

ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium

123

Classification of bronchiole epithelium

columnar epithelium