2.1 Intro to Metabolism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2.1 Intro to Metabolism Deck (24):
1

Metabolic hub- responsible for the distribution of nutrients that enter the body

Liver

2

Only substances that can pass through the blood brain barrier

Glucose and ketone bodies

3

General pathway of aerobic glycolysis

Glucose-->pyruvate-->acetyl coa

4

Product of anaerobic glycolysis

Lactate

5

Phosphorylation of molecules is done through

Oxidation reduction reactions

6

Explain substrate level phosphorylation

Phosphorylation of ADP involves a dehydrogenation reaction coupled with the dehydrogenation of an organic substrateATP is not the donor. The substrate PEP becomes pyruvate via phosphorylation by pyruvate kinase taking an inorganic phosphate from cellular cytosol

7

Explain oxidative phosphorylationGive products

Products are water and atpHydrokysis of the anhydride releases energy

8

Central molecule of all oxidative pathways for cellular respiration/oxidation

Acetyl CoA

9

Metabolic regulation depends largely on two concepts: __ and __

Enzymatic controlAvailability of substrate

10

Amino acids synthesized during 1st days of starvation, and their path of action

Alanine---> liver for gluconeogenesisGlutamine---> kidney for ammoniagenesisis; or gut to be converted to alanine which goes to the liver for gluconeogenesis

11

Catalyzes phosphorylation reactions

Protein Kinases

12

Catalyzes dephosphorylation reaction

Protein Phosphatase

13

3 principles of metabolism:

Fuels are degraded and large molecules are constructed in a series of linked reactionsATP liks energ-releasing pathways with energy requiring pathwaysMetabolic pathways are highly regulated

14

Amount of ATP circulating in the body is

100 g

15

Phosphorylation of molecules is done primarily through

Redox Reactions

16

Main fuel source of metabolism

Carbohydrates

17

General path of ATP production using carbohydrates

Carbohydrates> simple sugars (glucose) > Acetyl CoA

18

General path of ATP production using proteins

Proteins > amino acids > Acetyl CoA

19

General path of ATP production using fats

Fats > fatty acids + glycerol > Acetyl Coa

20

Fate of excess glucose

Converted to glycogen and stored in liver or muscles

21

Fate of amino acids

Excreted in the form of urea

22

Fate of triacylglycerol

Stored in the adipose tissue

23

Type of inhibition where the end product of a pathway controls its own rate of synthesis

Feedback inhibition

24

A type of activation where a metabolite produced early in the pathway activates an enzyme that catalyzes a reaction further down the pathway

Feedforward inactivation