2. Urogenital Development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2. Urogenital Development Deck (56):
1

the urogenital ridge (nephrogenic cord) arises from the __ of the trilaminar disc before giving rise to urinary and genital system

intermediate mesoderm

2

what are the 3 kidneys that originally develop from nephrogenic cord

pronephric, mesonephric, metanephric

3

which of the 3 kidneys contains functional glomeruli in week 4 and becomes ductus deferens in males around week 10

mesonephros

4

what is the exit point of urinary system into amniotic cavity

cloaca

5

which of the 3 kidneys splits into two parts: ureteric bud and a mass of mesoderm

metanephros

6

renogenesis (kidney development) is dependent on reciprocal induction by

RA

7

the renogenic mesoderm established by an RA gradient is the ___ which secretes growth factors inducing growth of ureteric bud from the caudal portion of mesonephric duct

metanephric blastema

8

the ureteric bud secretes growth factors stimulating metanephric blastema to become what two adult structures

glomeruli, kidney tubules

9

the ureteric bud becomes what adult structures

collecting duct, minor calyx, major calyx, renal pelvis, ureter

10

urine is produced by the metanephros to supplement amniotic fluid in utero, what is the condition of insufficient amniotic fluid

oligohydramnios

11

oligohydramnios can be indicative of what two conditions

bilateral renal agenesis, urethral obstruction

12

aberrant (accessory) renal arteries may enter kidney only cause problems when they enter at a pole obstructing

ureter

13

no kidneys develop in this condition diagnosed by oligohydramnios (results in potter's syndrome)

renal agenesis

14

renal fusion can prevent rotation of hilum to midline or prevent ascension causing wrong placement aka

ectopic kidney

15

fused kidneys (horseshoe) usually found inferior to what major aortic artery

inferior mesenteric

16

cancer of kidney caused by WT1 gene mutations characterized by blood in urine

wilms tumor

17

the cloaca (common urogenital outflow in utero) gets divided by the __ into dorsal and ventral portions

urorectal septum

18

common urogenital outflow in utero occurs through what structure

cloaca

19

the cloaca when divided by urorectal septum dorsally becomes __ and ventrally becomes __

rectum, bladder

20

failure of __ to retract completely and close from the umbilicus leads to leakage of fecal matter

vitteline duct

21

failure of __ to retract completely and close from the umbilicus to become urachus leads to leakage of urine

alantois

22

two structures that preliminarily open into the bladder, one of which gets displaced to the prostate gland in males so that semen does not enter the bladder

ureteric bud, mesonephric duct

23

the triangular region of the mesonephric duct incorporated into the bladder wall forms the

trigone

24

along with being patent (fistula, failing to close) what other anomaly can occur with the urachus causing an abdominal mass

urachal cyst

25

the embryo remains genitally undifferentiated until what week of development

6

26

male versus female external genitalia can be recognized at what week of development

12

27

fetal sex is determined by encoding what region of chromosome 46

SRY

28

synthesis of what triggers male development? When it's not expressed default is female

SRY protein (TDF)

29

SRY triggers the development of ___ into the wolffian duct which become epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicle, ejaculatory duct

leydig cells

30

SRY causes __ to develop signaling the mullein ducts to degenerate preventing female development

sertoli cells

31

the absence of SRY allows __ to develop which become fallopian tubes, uterus, and upper part of vagina

mullerian duct

32

the absence of SRY means leydig cells do not develop and thus testosterone does not signal ___ to become male genitalia

wolffian ducts

33

duct that plays the most essential role in male development

mesonephric

34

duct that plays the most essential role in female development

paramesonephric

35

gonads develop from intraembryonic coelom, intermediate mesoderm and ___ from yolk sac which invade dorsal mesentery and migrate to urogenital ridge

primordial germ cells

36

primary sex cords are aggregates that become gonad which has an outer cortex (becomes ___ in female) and inner medulla (becomes ___ in males)

ovary, testes

37

in females, the paramesonephric duct becomes

oviduct, uterus, upper vagina

38

in females, the mesonephric duct becomes

regresses

39

in females, the urogenital sinus

remains open

40

in females, the genital tubercle becomes

clitoris

41

in females, the labioscrotal swellings become

vulva

42

in males, the paramesonephric ducts

regress

43

in males, the urogenital sinus becomes

urethra, protate

44

in males, mesonephric ducts become

ductus deferens, epidydymis

45

in males, the genital tubercle becomes

penis

46

in males, the labioscrotal swellings become

scrotum

47

urogenital folds become __ in males

shaft

48

urogenital folds become __ in females

labia minora

49

2 uterus, 2 vagina (paramesonephric duct anomoly)

uterus didelphys

50

2 uterus, 1 vagina (paramesonephric duct anomoly)

uterus bicornis

51

(paramesonephric duct anomoly) closure of cervix or vagina

atresia

52

anomoly resulting in missing uterine tube, uterus, upper vagina (paramesonephric ducts don't develop)

mullerian agenesis

53

incomplete fusion of urethral fold in males (occurring at glans, shaft, scrotal, perineal) harder to treat the closer it occurs to the body

hypospadias

54

46 XX individual who undergoes excess adrenal androgen production in utero and forms genitalia that may be masuclinization of external genitalia: labial fusion, phallic urethra, but normal ovaries

adrenal hyperplasia

55

46 XY individual with receptors unresponsive to androgens thus failure to masculinize and secondary female sex characteristics form at puberty- X linked

AIS Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome

56

autosomal recessive condition where testosterone cannot be converted to DHT thus child has ambiguous genitalia, normal ductus deferens

5ARD