Abdominal Viscera Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Abdominal Viscera Deck (72):
1

the esophagus pierces the diaphragm at t10 slightly left of the midline and this is known as the

esophageal hiatus

2

the esophagus turns left sharply to enter the stomach at the

cardiac orifice

3

the inferior vena cava pierces the diaphragm at

t8

4

the aorta pierces the diaphragm at

t 12

5

condition occurs when esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm enlarges and weakens causing parts of stomach to herniate into the thorax

sliding hiatal hernia

6

hernia in diaphragm next to esophageal hiatus permits fundic stomach to herniate

paraesophageal hiatal hernia

7

4 parts of the stomach

cardia, fundus, body, pyloric antrum

8

the lesser curvature of the stomach connects to the __ via the lesser omentum

liver

9

this is a feature of the stomach that consists of folds to aid in digestion

rugae

10

the stomach is in contact with the __ kidney

left

11

3 parts of small intestine

duodenum, jejunum, ileum

12

4 parts of the duodenum... 4th part connects to right crus of diaphragm via suspensory (muscular) ligament of the duodenum

superior, descending, horizontal, ascending

13

most of the duodenum is retroperitoneal except for the 1st part which is partially covered by the ___ ligament

hepatoduodenal

14

THE mesentery begins at the flexure between what two structures

duodenum, jejunum

15

the right kidney and ureter are posterior to this segment of the duodenum and bile enters here through the duodenal papilla

2nd (descending)

16

the ileum ends at the

ileo-cecal valve

17

the jejunum and ileum of the small intestine are very mobile and held to the posterior wall by

THE mesentery

18

we can distinguish the jejunum from the ileum by its ___ vasa recta and more ___

longer, plicae circularis

19

we can distinguish the ileum from the jejunum by its shorter ____ and fewer ____

vasa recta, plicae circularis

20

this remnant of the vitelline duct is a common (diseased) feature of the ileum (looks like appendicitis often)

meckel's ileal diverticulum

21

the left and right colic ____ are the points in the large intestine where the colon takes a sharp turn

flexure

22

3 bands of longitudinal muscle on the outside of the colon that converge at the root of the appendix are called

taenia coli

23

taenia coli produce these sacculations that slow the movement of feces in order for water absorption and fecal formation

haustrae

24

this feature of the large intestine (not cecum) is made of tags of fat

appendices epeploicae

25

this structure, just before the cecum is two folds that are not a true sphincter

ileocolic valve

26

this is a cone like projection/ opening of the ileum into the cecum superior to the opening for the appendix

ileal papilla

27

this structure is attached posteromedial to cecum at the junction of 3 taenia coli

vermiform appendix

28

wich portions of the colon are retroperitoneal

ascending and descending

29

this lymph organ sits in the left hypochondriac region between the stomach and diaphragm. it is intraperitoneal.

spleen

30

two mesenteries connected to the spleen's visceral surface

gastrosplenic ligament
splenorenal ligament

31

this glandular organ is retroperitoneal

pancreas

32

pancreas has four parts: head (sits within the ____ curve), body, neck, and tail (anterior to hilus of ___)

duodenal, spleen

33

the IVC and aorta sit ___ to the body of the pancreas, the stomach is ___

posterior, anterior

34

the main pancreatic duct joins the bile duct to enter the duodenum via the

hepatopancreatic ampulla

35

the hepatopancreatic ampul forms the major duodenal __

papilla

36

this organ is located in the upper right quadrant

liver

37

four lobes of the liver are left, right, __ and __

quadrate, caudate

38

double layer of peritoneum that connects liver to anterior body wall and separates the left and right lobes

falciform ligament

39

peritoneum does not cover the area of the liver that articulates with the ___ and this is where the hepatic vein drains into IVC

diaphragm

40

when viewing the inferior liver, the left lobe is separated from the caudate lobe by the ligamentum ___ and from the quadrate lobe by the ligamentum ___. the hepatic fossa is a place for the gallbladder to sit.

venosum, teres hepatis

41

the ____ is a transverse fissure between caudate and quadrate lobes that carries the portal triad

porta hepatis

42

what superior structure connects to both the hepatoduodenal and hepatogastric ligaments

lesser omentum

43

this is the lowest widest part of the gallbladder that usually sits on the transpyloric line

fundus

44

when the cystic duct and common hepatic duct combine we get the ___ which runs along the lesser momentum to the duodenum where it enters with the pancreatic duct

bile duct

45

the aorta is retroperitoneal and terminates at L4 where it divides into the left and right

common iliac arteries

46

the left and right ___ form the aortic hiatus. the thoracic duct sits to which side of the aorta

crus, right

47

root of THE mesentery sits anterior to

abdominal aorta

48

the celiac artery, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric, and median sacral arteries are special branches of the abdominal aorta because they are

unpaired

49

distenstion/weakening of the vascular wall

aneurism

50

this branch from the aorta branches directly inferiorly to the aortic hiatus and is surrounded by plexus and ganglia. 3 major branches come from it: left gastric, common hepatic, and splenic.

celiac trunk

51

this artery branches from celiac trunk to lesser curvature of stomach

left gastric a.

52

the common hepatic a. splits into

proper hepatic and gastroduodenal a.

53

this tortuous artery comes from celiac trunk, runs posterior to stomach and superior to pancreas and ends in several branches

splenic

54

contents of the portal triad (hepatoduodenal ligament)

hepatic artery
portal vein
bile duct

55

the ___ vein runs into liver tissue along with the hepatic artery and blood is drained from this tissue by ___ veins

portal, hepatic

56

the ___ receives blood supply from both the superior mesenteric artery and the celiac trunk

pancreas

57

superior pancreaticoduodenal a. arises from ___ whereas the inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. arises from the ___ (and splits into anterior and posterior branches)

celiac, superior mesenteric

58

small intestine (jejunum and ileum) blood supply comes from

superior mesenteric

59

the ileocolic a. comes from ___ and splits into posterior cecal branch, anterior cecal branch, ileal branch, and appendicular branch.

superior mesenteric

60

this a. supplies derivatives of the hind gut (sigmoid, rectum, colon)

inferior mesenteric

61

the ___ system of capillaries carries nutrient rich (O2 poor) blood from the digestive system to the liver and sits posterior to the pancreas

hepatic portal

62

the hepatic portal system ends as this valve-less vein which begins at the convergence of the splenic vein, superior and inferior mesenteric

portal vein

63

the point where the portal system enters the liver after traveling through the hepatoduodenal ligament

porta hepatis

64

the esophagus contains a sub mucous venous plexus as well as overlapping drainage of blood to which two systems

azygous (superior)
portal (inferior)

65

the IVC bifurcates posterior, right, and inferior to that of the

aorta

66

on the left side, the suprarenal and gonadal veins enter the ___ instead of the IVC directly

renal vein

67

veins from the GI tract normally drain into the ___ vein whereas those from posterior structures (like kidneys) normally drain into ___

portal, IVC

68

4 ways for blood to bypass the liver (i.e. in times of cirrhosis) possible because of no valves

esophageal
paraumbilical v.
colic to retroperitoneal v
between superior rectal/middle/inferior rectal v.

69

a liver with cirrhosis could result in rerouting of blood using esophageal branches of l. gastric v. and this could cause what condition (dilation of veins)

esophageal vericosities

70

when liver is blocked, these veins in the falciform ligament dilate causing blood to flow toward what caval system. this can cause kaput medusa (dissension of veins in abdomen)

paraumbilical veins

71

retroperitoneal veins that drain into lumbar veins which eventually enter IVC are called ___ and the colic veins can use this route to bypass liver

veins of retzius

72

vericosities and hemorrhoids can occur between superior, middle, and inferior ___ veins as blood travels to bypass the liver

rectal