Mediastinum Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Mediastinum > Flashcards

Flashcards in Mediastinum Deck (45):
1

this structure near the first rib is the superior border of the mediastinum

thoracic inlet

2

this structure is the inferior border of the mediastinum

diaphragm

3

anterior border of mediastinum

sternum/ costal cartilage

4

posterior border of mediastinum

thoracic vertebrae

5

lateral border of the mediastinum

pleura

6

structures found in middle inferior mediastinum

heart and pericardial tissue

7

structures found in anterior inferior mediastinum

fat, lymph, vessels, thymus (children)

8

structures found in posterior inferior mediastinum

thoracic aorta, esophagus, azygos system, thoracic duct, sympathetic trunk, thoracic splanchnic nerves

9

vagus nerves, nerve plexuses, the thymus, trachea, esophagus, great vessels are found in which compartment of the mediastinum

superior

10

splanchnic nerves synapse with ________ ganglia in the abdomen

prevertebral

11

the diaphragm, left main bronchus and aortic arch all sit within this portion of the mediastinum causing constriction leading to lodged objects when swallowed and where a stricture may develop

inferior posterior (inferoposterior) mediastinum

12

arteries and veins entering and leaving the heart are called

great vessels

13

_______ prevent the collapse of mitral and tricuspid valves during contraction

papillary muscles

14

the heart is rotated in the chest cavity so that the ___side in located anteriorly

right

15

the base of the heart is primarily formed by which chamber

left atrium

16

the apex of the heart projects anterioinferiorly toward which side of the body

left

17

proper name for the LAD (left anterior descending artery)

anterior interventricular artery

18

the pericardium keeps the heart in place and prevents overfilling. it is made of an outer CT portion called the ___ pericardium which connects to the sternum and diaphragm

fibrous

19

the pericardium keeps the heart in place and prevents overfilling. it is made of an inner serous membrane portion called the ___ pericardium which has a parietal and visceral layer

serous

20

heart wall layer adheres to visceral pericardium, becomes thick and fatty as we age

external epicardium

21

heart wall layer containing muscular component

middle myocardium

22

heart wall layer of CT lining the chambers of the heart and external surface of heart valves

internal endocardium

23

areolar CT creates a layer between the endocardium and myocardium called

subendocardial layer

24

anterior portion of the atria which is wrinkled and flaplike

auricle

25

external feature extending around teh heart's circumference separating atria from ventricles

coronary (atrioventricular) sulcus

26

structure between atria and ventricles, made of dense irreg CT to anchor heart valves, provides electrical insulation

fibrous skeleton of the heart

27

the fossa ovalis can best be viewed in which chamber of the heart

right atrium

28

what 3 vessels empty into the right atrium

superior and inferior vena cava and coronary sinus

29

the interatrial septum contains _______ muscle and teh fossa ovalis

pectinate

30

which heart valves function most like venous valves

semilunar

31

the tricuspid valve is forced closed when the ___ ventricle ____ to prevent backflow

right, contracts

32

papillary muscles connect to atrioventricular valves and are anchored by

chordae tendineae

33

superior end of the pulmonary trunk narrows into a conical region called

conus arteriosus

34

the _______ wall of the left atrium contains openings for 4 pulmonary veins

posterior

35

their are 2 (unpaired) pulmonary _____ and 4 (paired) pulmonary _____ entering the heart

arteries, veins

36

the _____ valve separates the left atrium from the left ventricle

mitral/ bicuspid/ L. atrioventricular

37

the left ventricle wall is __x thicker than the right

3

38

left heart has more prominent muscles called ________ attaching the atrioventricular valve to ventricle wall

trabeculae carneae

39

heart is innervated by the autonomic system via

coronary plexus

40

sympathetic innervation causes rate and force to _____ and parasympathetics cause rate to ___ and have no effect on contractility

increase, decrease

41

parasympathetic innervation reaches the heart via

vagus nerve

42

the marginal artery (supplies right border) and the posterior inter-ventricular artery (supplies both ventricles) are branches of which coronary artery

right coronary artery

43

left coronary artery typically branches into ____ (supplies the interventricular system) and ___ (supplies left heart)

anterior interventricular artery (LAD), circumflex artery

44

condition of enlarged or stiffened ventricle reducing pumping ability

cardiomyopathy

45

procedure where catheter is inserted to correct plaque blockage in coronary arteries

angioplasty (balloon or stent)