4.8 Homeostasis Flashcards Preview

Pathology > 4.8 Homeostasis > Flashcards

Flashcards in 4.8 Homeostasis Deck (103)
Loading flashcards...
31

Permeabiity to proteins is determined by

type of capillary and physiology of endothelium

32

Most oncotic pressure is from

albumin__salt doesn't really matter with respect to vessels

33

tissue oncotic pressure is determined by

tissue protein and fluid concentrations

34

inc capillary filtration of low pretein and fluid

decreases tissue oncotic pressure

35

filtration of high protein fluid

increases tissue oncotic pressure

36

causes of edema

increased intravascular hydrostatic pressure,
decreased intravascular osmotic pressure - won't pull fluid in so it tends to go out,
lymphatic obstruction,
sodium retention,
inflammation

37

increased hydrostatic pressure due to

impaired venous flow,
arteriolar dilatation

38

imaired venous flow can be caused by

thrombosis,
heart failure,
pressure,
scarring

39

arteriolar dilatation

heat,
inflammation

40

decreased osmotic pressure

decreased protien in plasma

41

decreased protein in plasma is due to

lose it or don't make it - glomerular nephritis,
liver disease,
nutritional deficiencies

42

glomerular nephritis

protein is not supposed to leave but if glomerulus gets damaged you can drop protein levels quickly

43

liver disease

when you have end stage chirrosis you see dropped albumin and clotting factors bc you can't make as much _.terminal at this point_..ince edema with reduced albumin you'll see anasarca

44

lymphatic obstruction can be caused by

neoplasia,
surgery,
radiation,
infection/inflammation,
special infections like filaria (elephantitis)

45

salt retention results from

renal dysfunction -renin angiotensin dysfn?

46

salt retention causes

bon increased hydrostatic pressure and decreased osmotic pressure

47

heart failure

inability of heart to pump out everything it receives - heart can only pump the blood it recieves up to its physiological limit

48

inability to perfuse tissues

cadiogenic schock

49

why is heart stupid

bc it just recives blood and when it can't then there is failure

50

closed hydraulic loop

heart,
lungs,
vessels

51

which side heart failure is more common

left sided bc that's where you have heat attacks, this is the ventricle that has to pump out blood and this is the one that can die, commonly due to ischemia

52

common cause of right sided heart failure

left sided heart failure bc the pressure that cant be dealt with in the left is transmitted to the lungs where pulmonary edema will be seen and also back to the right ventricle

53

what vessels see increased pressure in rigth ventricular failure

the venacava pressure goes up and you'll see pedal edema bc getting blood back from the extermities is already hard and with inc pressure to fight against, it will be even harder. May also see jugular distension

54

what other complications do you see with heart failure

kidneys - the low cardiac output stimulates the kidney activate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system causing: increase Na and water retention, increased blood volume, and increased volume returing to the failing heart (cycle of doom)

55

morphology and distribution of Edema

localized vs anasarca,
dependent,
pitting,
periorbital,
pulmonary,
brain

56

non pitting edema

in hyper thyroid problems where large polysaccharides leak fluid

57

why does brain swelling last for a long time

brain doesn_t have lymphatics

58

fluid from lung in heart failure

just transudate, low protein

59

fluid from lung in hyperemia

high protein content due to dialation and leaky endotheial vessesl

60

what transmits more pressure to the capilaries

congestion transmits more pressure to the capillaries than inflammation or dialation of arteriole