7/15 Flashcards Preview

Daily Flashcard Quizzes > 7/15 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 7/15 Deck (111)
Loading flashcards...
1

what is a major determinant of viral tropism with enveloped viruses

the extent to which the viral surface proteins can bind to complementary host cell plasma receptors

depends on the viral envelope glycoprotein and its affinity for the host cell surface glycoproteins

2

what are standard precautions for C diff

wash with soap and water

gown
non sterile gloves

(masks are for droplet precautions)

3

what is a type 1 vs type 2 error

Type 1/alpha:
falsely concluding there's a difference
"falsely thinking you're number 1"

Type 2/beta:
falsely concluding there is no different
"falsely thinking being 2nd best is ok"

4

what is Berkson's bias

selection bias when you're selecting hospitalized (sick) pts as your control group

5

what are asplenic pts at risk for

infection with encapsulated bacteria
SHiN
Strep pneumo
Haemophilus Influenzae
Neisseria

6

what does the spleen do that asplenic pts are missing out on

spleen does 2 things:

acts as a blood filter capable of removing circulating pathogens

acts as a major site of opsonizing antibody synthesis

you could describe that as "systemic bacterial clearance"

7

what is the problem in CGD

susceptibility to catalase-positive organisms

they can be phagocytksed but cannot be killed effectively w/o NADPH oxidase.

"defective intracellular killing"

8

where is complement produced

liver

9

what is immediate hypersensitivity

results from IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation

"imEEEdiate"

10

what is the only fungus that has a polysaccharide capsule

cryptococcus neoformans

11

what organism pairs with the 'Micicarmine stain" buzzword

cryptococcus neoformans

it appears red on this stain

12

what is reaction formation

taking negative thoughts/feelings and doing the exact opposite

13

what is splitting

see something as "all good" or "all bad"

often with a borderline personality disorder

14

what is somatic symptom disorder

extreme preoccupation with unexplained medical symptoms and excessive health care use

symptoms are not intentional

15

how do you best treat somatic symptom disorder

schedule regular visits with the same provider

limit unnecessary workup and referral to specialists

reassure that a serious illness has been ruled out

legitimatize symptoms but focus on functional improvement as the treatment goal, rather than symptom-driven visits
-decrease stress
-improve coping strategies

16

distinguish Tourette syndrome from Chronic Tic disorder

Tourette:
motor AND vocal tics > 1 yr
(characteristically wax and wane)

Chronic tic disorder:
motor OR vocal tics > 1 yr

17

what is a t-test for

compare difference between the means of 2 groups

18

what is Analysis of Variance for

ANOVA:
compares the difference between the means of 2 or more groups

ALL quantitative variables

"ANOVA = 3 words"

19

what is a Chi square test for

used to evaluate the association between 2 categorical variables

ALL qualitative variables

"chi-tegorical"

20

what are anti-Smith antibodies specific for

SLE

21

what are anti-Smith antibodies' target

autoantibodies against snRNPs

22

what can a SLE pt with anti-Smith antibodies not do

remove introns from RNA transcripts

23

what is wet and dry beriberi

2/2 thiamine deficiency

dry:
bilateral peripheral neuropathy

wet:
neuropathy + CHF

24

what is B6 deficiency characterized by

cheilosis, glossitis, dermatitis, affective symptoms (irritability)
sideroblastic anemias

25

what does Thiamine used for

cofactor in several synthesis steps: "ATP":
alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (TCA cycle)
Transketolase (HMP shunt)
Pyruvate dehydrogenase (links glycolysis to TCA cycle)

also branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase (in Maple syrup urine disease)

26

how does colchicine help in gout

binds and stabilizes tubulin to inhibit microtubule polymerization, which will impair NEUTROPHIL chemotaxis and degranulation

acute and prophylactic value

27

what is the bruising process

the purple/blue color of a bruise is RBCs (with Hb) escaping into the tissue

RBC destruction causes the release of iron-containing heme molecules

HEME OXYGENASE (in macrophages) degrades heme into Biliverdin, CO, and Ferrous iron

BILIVERDIN IS GREEN! (verde)

Biliverdin is further reduced to
bilirubin

BILIRUBIN IS YELLOW! when transported to the liver bound to albumin

28

what suggests a general nephritic syndrome

HTN, hematuria, and moderate proteinuria

29

what are linear deposits made of on renal biopsy, and what are they characteristic of

mad elf IgG and C3

anti-glomerular BM disease

30

what are the different immunofluorescent findings in RPGN

linear:
anti-BM antibody
Goodpasture syndrome

Granular:
PSGN
or diffuse proliferative GN in SLE!

Negative:
pauci-immune, so you have ANCA's
C-ANCA: Wegener's
P-ANCA: microscopic polyangiitis or Churg-Strauss