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Flashcards in 7/24 Deck (53)
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1

when is the cleavage to get dichorionic/diamniotic twins

morula cleavage
day 1-3

2

what disease presents before 40 with neuro (extrapyramidal) symptoms, cirrhosis, hemolytic anemia, and dementia

Wilson's

3

how does hematopoiesis move through embryologic development

yolk sac (third week)
liver (1 month)
spleen and lymph (2-4 months)
bone marrow (>4 months)

4

how do you distinguish Diffuse from Limited Scleroderma?

Diffuse: anti-topoisomerase I (anti-Scl)

Limited (CREST): anti-centromere

5

what is the COD in scleroderma

rapid progression to visceral involvement with fibrosis, including pulm, renal, CVS, etc

6

how do you explain swelling and inflammation within a day after a protein inoculation

pre-existing antibodies react with the injected antigen, forming immune complexes, and they activate complement to cause inflammation

type 3 hypersensitivity rxn

7

what's the buzzword for strawberry tongue

Scarlet fever (strep pyo; sandpaper-like rash)

or Kawasaki disease

8

which disease gives you sandpaper like rash, pharyngitis, and fever>

strep pyo
scarlet fever

via production of pyrogenic exotoxins

9

what is phentolamine's MOA

alpha1 and alpha2 antagonist

10

what is propranolol's MOA

beta1 and beta2 antagonist

11

what is epinephrine's MOA

alpha1, alpha2, beta1, beta2 agonist

12

what is isoproterenol's MOA

beta1 and beta2 agonist

13

what is Norepinephrine's MOA?

alpha1, alpha2, beta1 agonist

14

what will give you a LMN disease with flaccid muscle weakness, hypotonia, loss of voluntary movement, loss of DTRs, and fasciculations?

damage to ventral horn cells

called Werdnig-Hoffman disease

15

what are these CSF findings:
100-1000 cells, mostly lymphocytes
low Glucose
high protein

fungal

16

what are these CSF findings:
up to 90,000 cells, mostly PMNs
low Glucose
high protein
markedly elevated opening pressure

bacterial

17

what are these CSF findings:
100-1000 cells, mostly lymphocytes
normal Glucose
high protein
slightly elevated opening pressure

aseptic/ viral

18

what are lab findings in Turner

high FSH (no neg feedback from ovaries)
high LH
low estrogen
low inhibin
normal Growth Hormone

19

what gives you decreased plts and normal RBCs. you have auto-antibodies against platelet antigens GP1b or GP2b3a. often 2/2 viral infection, esp in children. smear will show a few large, young platelets. NO SCHISTOCYTES

idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura

20

what gives you decreased plts and fragmented RBCs. usually associated with Shiga-toxin (Shigella or EHEC, campylobacter, or viruses). commonly contaminated foods, bloody diarrhea, thrombocytopenia, bruising, acute renal failure, irritability, lethargy, seizures. blood smear shows low platelets and schistocytes

hemolytic uremic syndrome

21

what gives you fragmented RBCs, +/- low plts, depending on severity and bone marrow response. SCHISTOCYTES

microangiopathic hemolytic anemia

22

what gives you low platelets and fragmented RBCs
thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura. ADAMTS13 deficiency, NEURO symptoms (AMS), renal dysfunction, SCHISTOCYTES

thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

23

what gives you normal platelet numbers and decreased platelet function

VWF disease

24

what presents with:
facial lesions
hypo pigmented "ash leaf" spots on skin
multiple hamartomas
renal ANGIOMYOLIPOMAS,
cardiac rhabdomyomas
astrocytomas
SUBEPENDYMAL GIANT CELL ASTROCYTOMA (LATERAL VENTRICLE)

Tuberous sclerosis

25

what can acanthosis nigricans indicate x 2?

diabetes

underlying carcinoma, particularly gastric`

26

what iron labs do you see in anemia of chronic disease

low MCV
low serum iron
low TIBC

high ferritin

27

what type of kidney problem has deposits of macrophages and fibrin

RPGN

crescents

28

what type of kidney problem has deposits of C3 and IgG

RPGN- Goodpsture Syndrome

linear deposits of these

29

which 2 parkinson's drugs are dopamine agonists

pramipexole and ropinirole

30

what does low C3 and C4, fever, pruritic skin rash, arthralgias mean you have?

serum sickness

type 3 Hypersensitivity rxn!!

you're depositing IgG or IgM complement-fixing antibodies, so you're getting a localized consumption of complement (low C3)