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Flashcards in 7/21 Deck (69)
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1

describe the rationale behind the special sweat test for CF

in epithelia, impaired CF transmembrane conductance regulator protein reduces the luminal chloride secretion

this increases Na and H2O absorption

results in dehydrated mucus and a
more negative nasal transepithelial potential difference

this negative finding can dx CF

2

what is the major adaptive immune mechanism for Influenza virus?

a HUMORAL response with antibodies against HEMAGGLUTININ is generally the most important source of protection

they block virus binding to host cells

3

what is the RER's primary role

synthesis of cell membrane proteins

4

what is the primary mechanism of calcium efflux from cardiac cells prior to relaxation

Na/Ca exchange pump and
SR Ca-ATPase pump

5

what is calmodulin useful for

Ca-binding messenger protein that is present in all cells, but it is important for excitation-contraction coupling in SM cells, which lack troponin

6

what is pleiotrophy

one gene mutation having multiple phenotypic manifestations

7

what's the pathogenesis of centriacinar emphysema

oxidative injury to respiratory bronchioles and
activation of resident alveolar macrophages

inflammatory recruitment of neutrophils into the airspace

activated macrophages and neutrophils release proteases that degrade EC matrix, and generate free radicals

acinar wall destruction and irreversible airspace dilation distal to terminal bronchioles

8

what presents with recurrent infections, candidiasis, failure to thrive, diarrhea, low gamma globulin levels, and absent thymic shadow

SCID

combined T and B cell dysfunction

pt has low/absent CD3+ T cells and hypogammaglobulinemia

since there's severe T cell deficiency, you'll likely have an absent thymic shadow

9

what is Etoposide's MOA

chemotherapeutic agent that inhibits sealing activity of topoisomerase II

causes chromosomal breaks to accumulate in dividing cells

10

what does topoisomerase 1 do

induces single strand DNA breaks to relieve negative supercoiling during replication

11

what causes cleft lip

failure to fuse the maxillary prominence and inter maxillary segment

12

what causes holoprosencephaly

failure of medial nasal prominence to fuse and form the inter maxillary segment

13

where do MEN disorders arise from embryologically

neural crest tissue

medullary thyroid cancer w/ parafollicular C cells
Pheochromocytoma from adrenal medulla

14

what forms a glial scar in the CNS several weeks after an infarct

cystic cavity filled with dense fibers formed by ASTROCYTES

15

what are hamartomas composed of

disorganized cartilage, fibrous tissue, and adipose tissue

AKA coin lesion

16

what is Flutamide's MOA

androgen receptor antagonist

17

what is leuprolide's MOA

long-acting GnRH agonist

18

what is weird about leuprolide dosing

it's a GnRH analog that will cause a transient increase in LH and testosterone when you first start treatment, since the body is first seeing a GnRH spike

prescribe with anti-androgens to avoid this initial spike/worsening of symptoms

19

what is finasteride's MOA

5-alpha-reductase inhibitor

it prevents conversion of testosterone to DHT in peripheral tissues

20

what brain area is damaged in Huntington

Caudate nucleus

21

what brain area is damaged in Parkinson

substantia nigra

22

what brain area causes myoclonus

nucleus ambiguous

23

what brain area causes hemiballism

sub thalamic nucleus

usually 2/2 lacunar infants and HTN near the sub thalamic nucleus

24

what should you be extra careful of with a baby born with CF

Vitamin K deficiency-
necessary for carboxylation and functionality of coagulation factors

neonates are at risk of bleeding and seizures

25

what should you think with a RBC containing blue on a Wright-Giemsa stain?

reticulocyte!
you're staining ribosomal RNA precipitates

26

where is a blunt eye trauma most likely to herniate into

medial or inferior orbital walls, which would herniate into the MAXILLARY sinus

27

what is multiple myeloma as a generic term

plasma cell neoplasm

B-lymphocytes mature into plasma cells that synthesize abnormal/large amounts of monoclonal immunoglobulin

28

what type of cancer is at increased risk with aflatoxins

HCC

also associated with p53 mutation

29

what are the TWO treatment options for gardnerella vaginosis

metronidazole or
clindamycin

30

what does HPV preferentially attack

stratified squamous epithelium that lines areas undergoing frequent friction and abrasion:
true vocal cords
cervix
anus