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Flashcards in NBME17 Deck (114)
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1

what are the 2nd generation antihitamines

Loratadine
Fexofenadine
Desloratadine
Cetirizine

"a fox, cert, and lonely rat"
usually end in -adine

2

which immunoglobulins are the warm and col

Warm: IgG
"warm weather is Great"

Cold: IgM and complement
"Cold weather is Miserable"

3

small tender blisters on genitals a few days after sex. what are they

Herpes simplex virus 2

4

what is Rosacea?

erythematous papule and pustules, no comedones

may be associated with facial flushing in response to external stimuli (alcohol, heat)

Phymatous rosacea can cause rhinopehyma (nose deformity)

5

what does Malaria vs Leishmania look like on stain

Malaria:
tiny little horseshoes with knobs on the end inside of RBCs

Leishmania:
macrophages containing amastigotes- which looks like a polka-dot cell

6

distinguish between visceral and cutaneous Leishmaniasis

Visceral: Kala-azar
AKA black fever
spiking fevers, HSM, pancytopenia

Cutaneous:
skin ulcers
brazilyensis- "flesh eating"

7

what is Cholera's MOA

works w/ a Gs mechanism- so it activates adenylyl cyclase and cAMP

"GaS can" in "cAMP Cholera"

8

where would a tumor be if it gave you ataxia, but muscle strength, DTR, sensation, and proprioception are all normal

cerebellum

9

what might a newborn's serum show if they have congenital CMV

IgG and IgM

the mom's IgG crosses the placenta
the baby makes IgM

10

when does neural tube develop

neural tube forms in week 3 and closes by week 4

11

where does the femoral nerve come from

L2-L4

12

what are the stages of change

pre-contemplation: no acknowledgment of problem

contemplation: acknowledging there's a problem, but not willing to do anything

preparation/determination: getting ready to change

action/willpower: changing behaviors

maintenance: maintaining the changes

relapse: returning to old behaviors and abandoning new ones

13

what is the reaction to poison ivy

type 4, cell-mediated with T LYMPHOCYTES

(linear vesicles)

antigenic activation of T lymphocytes and macrophages leads to the production of lymphokines, which produce the tissue injury.
this rxn does not require formation of antibodies.

14

what do the labioscrotal swellings make

Scrotum or labia majora

15

what do the urogenital folds make

ventral shaft of penis (penile urethra) or labia minora

16

what does the urogenital sinus make x 2?

1- prostate gland or
urethral and paraurethral glands (of Skene) in female

2- Bulbourehtral glands (of Cowper) or
greater vestibular glands (of Bartholin)

17

what makes the urinary bladder

urogenital sinus + mesonephric ducts

18

what do the genital tubercles make x 2?

glans penis or
glans clitoris

corpus cavernosum and spongiosum or
vestibular bulbs

19

what would happen if you were in cold water for 20 min

peripheral vessels would constrict, so
central blood volume would increase

ADH will be decreased, because
your body thinks it has enough volume right now with it all shifting centrally

ANP would be increased, because
it thinks you're in a hypervolemic state (the atria is seeing more fluid)

20

delayed separation of umbilical cord is buzzword for what

Leukocyte adhesion deficiency :)

21

when someone asks about why they're overweight

you can attribute it both to genes and environment

22

confused, diarrhea, not taking care of himself, stomatitis, and diffuse rash on sun exposed areas... what does he have

Pellagra

probably from Niacin deficiency

23

what does a highly sensitive test or specific

sensitivity: rules out the HEALTHY ONES, if this is high and you get a negative test result, then it's safe to say they don't have it.

specificity: rules in the disease
so if this isn't super high, you still need to do additional testing to confirm dx. just because a test is positive, doesn't mean they definitely have this

24

what causes beta thalassemia

point mutations in splice sites of introns, causing a retained intron

25

how could you identify HIV-2

less common, less pathogenic, really only in Africa

p24 (capsid) will be positive in HIV-1 and HIV-2

NAT for viral RNA is more specific, so the primers will bind to HIV-1 not HIV-2, so it can differentiate

26

what are the 2 possible cancers after complete molar pregnancies

gestational trophoblastic neoplasia GTN:
vaginal bleeding, enlarged uterus, super high beta-hCG
material within endometrial cavity w/ no intrauterine pregnancy
CT shows necrotic intrauterine mass and metastatic nodules

Choriocarcinoma:
can develop in mother or baby
malignancy of trophoblastic tissue
NO CHORIONIC VILLI PRESENT

it looks like these might be the same...

27

describe Basal cell carcinoma

locally invasive, but rarely metastasizes

Pink, pearly nodules, commonly w/ telangiectasis, rolled borders, central crusting, or ulceration
non healing ulcers with infiltrating growth
scaling plaque!

"palisading" nuclei on histo

28

describe squamous cell carcinoma

locally invasive, may spread to lymph nodes, but rarely metastasizes

ulcerative red lesions with frequent scale
associated with chronic draining sinuses

keratin pearls on histology

keratoacanthoma is a variant that grows rapidly then may regress

29

what is actinic keratosis

scaly plaque
precursor to squamous cell carcinoma
usually from people exposed to UVB

30

what 2 organs release glucose into the blood

liver and KIDNEY