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Flashcards in 7/22 Deck (53)
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1

what cancers does Lynch Syndrome give you, and what genes?

colorectal
endometrial
ovarian

MSH2
MLH1
MSH6
PMS2

2

what cancers does FAP give you, and what gene?

colorectal
desmoids and osteomas
brain tumors

APC

3

what cancers does VHL give you and and what gene?

hemangioblastomas
renal clear cell carcinoma
pheochromocytoma

VHL

4

what cancers does Li Fraumeni syndrome give you, and what gene?

sarcomas
breast cancer
brain tumors
adrenocortical carcinoma
leukemia

tp53

5

which nerves carry the afferent and efferent limbs of the carotid sinus reflex

afferent: glossopharyngeal

efferent: parasympathetic vagus

6

which molecule recognizes stop codons

Releasing Factor 1

7

what are efficacy and potency of drugs

efficacy is the "vertical" measure- % of maximal effect

potency is the "horizontal" measure-what doses are required to reach the same height on the graph

8

what is Sirolimus's MOA

inhibits mTOR, which blocks IL-2 and prevents cell cycle progression and lymphocyte proliferation

9

what can cause a dilated coronary sinus

pulmonary HTN,

leading to elevated Right heart pressures

10

which pharyngeal pouch does the thymus come from

3rd pharyngeal pouch (with the inferior parathyroids)

11

what TB drug has to be processed by mycobacterial catalase peroxidase in order to be activated

isoniazid

12

what do you classically on crohn's histology

noncaseating granulomas and transmural inflammation

13

which renal pathology causes selective loss of albumin in urine

minimal change disease

caused by loss of anion properties of the glomerular BM

14

which disease has autoimmune destruction of intrahepatic, interlobular bile ducts by granulomatous inflammation

PBC

typically presents w/ pruritus and fatigue in middle aged F

15

which lung exposure die you pleural thickening and calcified lesions on diaphragm etc?

asbestos

16

what 2 lab values will be elevated in a neural tube defect

AchE and AFP

17

what does dermatomyositis have a strong association with

malignancy, including lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancers

18

what is apolipoprotein E4 genotype associated with

Late-onset Alzheimer's

19

what are the 3 gene mutations associated with early-onset Alzheimer's

APP (chromosome 21)
Presenilin 1
Presenilin 2

20

what disease presents with tinnitus, vertigo, and sensorineural hearing loss

Meniere's disease

21

what causes Meniere's disease

increased pressure and volume of endolymph

22

what are occupational exposures to rubber, aromatic dyes, textiles, and leather a risk factor for

transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

23

what cells are neurofibromas and NF's associated with

neural crest cells

24

what are tazobactam, clavulanate, and sulbactam MOA's?

beta-lactamase inhibitors

prevent excessive destruction of the antibiotic they're paired with

25

what vitamin can help treat measles

Vitamin A

26

what will constriction of efferent arteriole do to RPF and FF?

decrease RPF
increase FF (by increasing GFR from back-up of fluid and increase of hydrostatic pressure)

27

what is Trastuzumab's MOA?

monoclonal antibody that binds to a portion of HER2 and prevents activation of tyrosine kinase, which will promote apoptosis

28

when do you give an ER modulator vs an aromatase inhibitor for breast cancer

SERM:
tamoxifen
premenopausal pts

Aromatase inhibitor:
anastrozole, letrozole
postmenopausal pts

29

what is the buzzword for tissue transglutaminase

celiac disease

30

where is the best place to biopsy for celiac disease and crohn's?

celiac: duodenum

crohns: terminal ileum