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Flashcards in 7/23 Deck (64)
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1

which type of Rh immunoglobulin is given to Rr(-) pregnant women at 28 weeks and immediately postpartum

IgG anti-Rh(D) antibodies

anti-Rh antibodies bind to Rh-positive fetal RBCs that enter maternal circulation, and prevent interaction w/ maternal immune system via sequestration and elimination using spleen.

it does not cause a significant effect on the baby/hemolysis because the quantity is very small compared to a normal immunologic reaction

2

which complement and immunoglobulin are opsonizers

Complement 3b
IgG

3

what are the neoplastic vs non-neoplastic colonic polyps:

Neoplastic:
serrated
adenomatous
(villous > tubular)


Non-neoplastic:
hyperplastic
submucosal
mucosal
inflammatory

4

what's the overarching problem in Alzheimer's

decreased levels of ACh in the nucleus basalis of Meynert and hippocampus

Diminished activity of choline acetyltransferase is the cause

5

what's the cause of Parkinson's

loss of Dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra

6

what's the cause of panic attacks and panic disorder

locus ceruleus in the caudal pontine central gray matter

contains a large amount of NE

7

what's the cause of Huntington

atrophy of the nucleus caudates

NMDA receptors are depleted in the striatum of these pts

8

what is implicated in pathogenesis of anorexia, depression, and sleep disorder

The Raphe nuclei form the medial part of the brainstem's reticular formation (medulla, pons, and midbrain)

many neurons here are serotonergic, and
serotonin is implicated in the pathogenesis of all these

9

which disorder has
capillary hemangiomas in retina or cerebellum
congenital cysts or neoplasms in kidney, liver, and pancreas
at risk for RCC, which can be bilateral

VHL

10

which disorder has peripheral nervous system tumors
neurofibromas, optic nerve gliomas, Lisch nodules, and cafe au lait spots

NF 1 Von Recklinghausen's

11

which disorder is a dominant NS tumor syndrome, with bilateral CN8 schwannomas and multiple meningiomas

NF 2

12

which disorder is a rare conengital neurocutaneous disorder w/ cutaneous facial angiomas, leptomeningeal angiomas, skin involvement around the trigeminal nerve distribution, mental retardation, seizures, hemiplegia, and skull radio opacities

Sturge Weber

13

which disorder has characteristic "tram track" calcifications on skull

Sturge Weber

14

what disorder has cutaneous angiofibromas, visceral cysts, variety of hamartomas, renal angiomyolipomas, cardiac rhabdomyomas, and commonly seizures

Tuberous Sclerosis

15

what disorder is the auto dominant inheritance of congenital telangiectasis

Osler Weber Rendu syndrome

AKA hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

16

what type of gallbladder finding is common in critically ill pts

acute acalculous cholecystitis

it's due to gallbladder stasis and ischemia

17

which malaria strains have the hypozoites

P vivid and P ovale

18

how do you treat malaria hypnozoites

Primaquine

19

what are transcription regulators that play a role in segmental organization of an embryo along its cranio-caudal axis

Homeobox genes- HOX gene

20

how does ARDS happen in sepsis

fluid accumulation in the alveolar spaces

the circulating cytokines active pulmonary epithelium and provoke inflammatory response mediated by neutrophils, which causes capillary damage an leakage of protein and fluid into alveolar space

21

what is c-Myc's function in Burkitt lymphoma

transcription activator

it gets translocated 8;14 and over expressed on chromosome 14

22

what stain do you use to evaluate Whipple disease

PAS

there's glycoprotein in the cell walls of Trophyeryma whipplli

23

which cancer is most common in a female never-smoker

adenocarcinoma

it's also the most common type in the general population

24

what is the psoas sign

inflammation/pain when the hip is extended

25

what do you treat MRSA with in a pt who has an allergy to Vancomycin

daptomycin

risk of myopathy and CPK elevation

26

which types of muscle cells do Calmodulin and myosin light chain kinase work in

smooth muscle cells

27

what does the contractile mechanism in skeletal muscle depend on

proteins including myosin II, tropomyosin, and troponin

and Ca ions

28

what is the mechanism of a AAA?

chronic transmural inflammation
that leads to release of matrix metalloporteinases and elastase that degrade extracellular matrix components, leading to weakening and progressive expansion of the aortic wall

(an intimal tear is pathology of aortic dissection)

29

what is the obstruction in HOCM?

anterior mitral leaflet shifts towards inter ventricular septum during contraction causing an obstruction of the aortic valve route

30

what lab findings go with lactase deficiency

increased breath hydrogen
reduced stool pH
elevated stool osmolality