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Flashcards in 7/31 Deck (152)
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1

lowers LDL
inhibits HMG CoA reductase in liver, so more LDL is cleared from circulation with increased LDL receptors

statin

myopathy, hepatotoxicity

2

lowers LDL
bile acid binding resins
liver must use cholesterol to make more

Cholestyramine

GI upset

3

lowers LDL
blocks intestinal absorption of cholesterol at brush border

Ezetimibe

diarrhea

4

lowers Triglycerides
upregulates LPL to increase triglyceride clearance
activates PPAR-alpha to induce HDL synthesis

Fibrates

myopathy, esp with statins
cholesterol gallstones

5

lowers LDL, increases HDL
inhibits lipolysis via inibiting HPL
reduces hepatic VLDL synthesis

Niacin/B3

red/flushed face
hyperglycemia
hyperuricemia

6

GLP-1 agonist
decrease gastric emptying

Exentide

pancreatitis
requires some functional beta cells

7

DPP-4 inhibitor
decrease gastric emptying by preventing breakdown of GLP-1

-gliptans

nasopharyngitis

8

inhibits TPO and 5'deiodinase

inhibits TPO only

PTU

methimazole

9

bind hydroxyappetite to inhibit osteoclasts

bisphosphonate

10

inspiration ____ venous return

increases

it drops intrathoracic pressure

11

valsalva ____ intrathoracic pressure

increases

12

standing up ____ preload

decreases

13

rapid squatting or leg raise ____
venous return
preload
afterload

increase
increase
increase

14

serum tumor markers:
Alk phos

bone or liver
seminoma

15

serum tumor markers:
AFP

HCC
yolk sac tumor
mixed germ cell tumor

16

serum tumor markers:
beta-hCG

Hydatidiform moles
Choriocarcinomas
Gestational Trophoblastic disease
(HCG)
testicular cancer
mixed germ cell tumor

produced by syncytiotrophoblasts of placenta

17

CA 15-3/CA 27-29

breast cancer

18

CA 19-9

pancreatic adenocarcinoma
"9 = P"

19

CA 125

ovarian cancer

20

calcitonin

medullary thyroid cancer

21

thyroid:
most absence of capsular vascular invasion
"colloid-containing micro follicles"
usually nonfunctional, painless

thyroid adenoma

22

thyroid:
most common, excellent prognosis
Orphan Annie Eyes
psammoma bodies
nuclear grooves
RET and BRAF mutations
ionizing radiation

Papillary carcinoma

23

thyroid:
invades thyroid capsule and vasculature
UNIFORM follicles
RAS mutation

follicular carcinoma

24

thyroid:
from parafollicular C cells
produces calcitonin
sheets of cells in amyloid stroma (Congo Red)
MEN2A/B (RET) mutation

Medullary carcinoma

25

thyroid:
older pts
invading local structures
pleomorphic giant cells

undifferentiated/anaplastic carcinoma

26

ovarian:
Call-Exner bodies
collections of eosinophilic fluid
appress yellow

granulosa cell tumor

27

ovarian:
aggressive
ovaries and testicles
yellow, friable, sold mass
Schiller-Duval bodies (~glomeruli)
AFP tumor marker

Yolk sac (endodermal sinus) tumor

28

ovarian:
GI malignancy that metastasizes to ovaries
mucin secreting signet cell adenocarcinoma

Krukenberg tumor

29

uniformly enlarged, soft, globular uterus
extension of endometrial tissue into myometrium

adenomyosis

30

estrogen sensitive endometrial tumor
irregular uterine enlargement
consipation, urinary problems

leiomyoma/fibroid