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Flashcards in 8 Second Half Wtf Deck (23):
1

Successive approximation

Differential reinforcement: acting in a way that gets closer to the desired behavior

2

Positive reinforcement

increasing a behavior by representing a positive stimulus

3

Negative reinforcement

increasing a behavior by taking away an aversive stimulus

4

Primary reinforcers

one that satisfies a biological need

5

Conditioned (secondary) reinforcers

one that has been paired with a primary reinforcer and has acquired value and reinforcement

6

Positive punishment

adding something aversive that decreases the likelihood the behavior will be repeated

7

Negative punishment

withdraw a desirable stimulus to decrease the likelihood the behavior will be repeated

8

Continuous reinforcement

every time the desired behavior occurs, it is reinforced (learned quickly-extinguished quickly)

9

Partial (intermittent) reinforcement

reinforcement occurs intermittently (learning takes longer but results are more persistent and stable)

10

Fixed-ratio schedules

specific number of correct responses is required before reinforcement occurs

11

Variable-ratio schedules

reinforcement occurs after an unpredictable number of correct responses

12

Fixed-interval schedule

reinforcement occurs only after a specific amount of time has elapsed

13

Variable-interval schedules

reinforcement occurs after an unpredictable amount of time elapses

14

Punishment

an event that decreases the behavior it follows

15

Latent Learning

learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is incentive to demonstrate it

16

Cognitive map

a mental representation of the layout of ones environment
ex.) rats exploring the maze able to make mental map

17

Intrinsic motivation

a desire to perform a behavior for its own sake

18

Extrinsic

a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment

19

Observational learning

learning by observing others and imitating, watching others do stuff, higher animals

20

Modeling

the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior

21

Mirror neurons

frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so
(the brains mirroring of another's action may enable imitation language, learning & empathy)

22

Prosocial behavior

positive, constructive, helpful behavior (opposite of antisocial behavior)

23

Albert bandura

Bobo doll, children learn through initiating others who receive rewards and punishments