Chapter 11 This Sucks Much Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 This Sucks Much Deck (31):
1

Intelligence

Mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations

2

Reification

Viewing an abstract, immaterial concept as if it were a concrete thing

3

Factor analysis

A statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one's total score

4

Charles Spearman

Father of factor analysis and developed the concept of general intelligence

5

General Intelligence

A factor that underlies all specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test

6

L.L. Thurstone

This psychologist disagreed with Spearman and identified 7 clusters of primary mental abilities

Analyzed not on a single scale, weak relationship,between clusters

7

Howard Gardner

Supported Thurstone; studied brain damage and savant syndrome patients to identify 8 types of intelligences

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Savant Syndrome

A condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill

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Robert Sternberg

Agrees with Gardner; father of triarchic theory, which distinguishes 3 types of intelligences

10

Emotional Intelligence

The ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions

11

Creativity

The ability to produce novel and valuable ideas

12

Intelligence Test

A method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others using numerical scores

13

Alfred Binet

Developed first intelligence test for France to identify slow learners who need special education

14

Mental Age

A measure of intelligence performance created by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance

15

Lewis Terman

Believed that intelligence scores should be used to produce a superior human race; created the Stanford-Binet Test

16

Stanford-Binet

The widely used American revision, by Terman, of Binet's original intelligence test; used for immigration laws

17

Intelligence Quotient

Defined originally as the ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100; average score is 100

18

Aptitude Test

A test designed to predict a person's future performance; measures capacity to learn

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Achievement Test

A test designed to assess what a person has learned

20

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)

Most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance subtests

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Standardization

Defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group

22

The Flynn Effect

Average intelligence scores over time (decades) have been improving; linked to educational opportunities and nutrition

23

Normal Curve

The symmetrical bell shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes; average (most) scores in middle, and extremes on the end (few)

24

Reliability

The extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting

25

Validity

The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to

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Content Validity

The extent to which a test covers the behavior that is of interest

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Criterion

The behavior that a test is designed to predict; the measure used in defining whether the test has validity

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Predictive Validity

The success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between scores and the criterion behavior

29

Mental Retardation

A condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of below 70 as well as difficulty in adapting to the demands of life

30

Down Syndrome

A condition of retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one's genetic makeup

31

Stereotype Threat

A self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype