Flashcards in Chapter 18 First Half..life Falling Apart Deck (20):
the scientific study of how we think about, influence and relate to one another
suggests how we explain someone's behavior- by crediting either the situation or the person's deposition
Fundamental attribution error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
feelings, often based on our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to object people and events
Foot in the door phenomenon
the tendency for people who have first agreed on to a small request to comply later wth a larger request
Philip Zimbardo-Standford Prison Experiment
a toxic situation triggered degrading behaviors among those assigned ro the guard role, while prisoners broke down mentally.
ended the experiment early and later admitted how the experiment failed
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
The Asch Conformity Experiment
an experiment conducted by Solomon Asch consisting of a set of simple questions with clear-cut answers. After the first two questions, the third question has the same clear-cut answer.
however, the four men/women before you answer unanimously with the wrong answer and you go against the clear-cut evidence before you to conform with the others by answering with the incorrect response
Normative Social Influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
Information Social Influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept other's opinions about reality
Stanley Milgram's Obedience Experiment
undertook social psychology's most famous and controversial experiment.
consisted of two students participating in student and teacher roles where the student is strapped to an electric chair and has to answer a series of questions, every incorrect answer relieved a shock. The voltage increases after every incorrect answer and despite the agonizing cries of the student, the teacher will follow the experimenter's orders despite their moral beliefs.
the student's complied with social pressures 63% of the time.
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal anonymity
the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussions within the group
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitudes toward a group and its members generally involves stereotyped beliefs. negative feelings and a predisposition to discriminatory action
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) beliefs about a group of people