Hnggg Chapter 5 First Half Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Hnggg Chapter 5 First Half Deck (27):
1

Sensation

Process where our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from environment

2

Perception

Process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, lets us recognize meaningful objects and events

3

Bottom up processing

Analysis that begins with sensory receptors and works up to the brains integration of sensory information

4

Top down processing

Information processing guided by higher level mental processes, when we construct perceptions drawing on our experiences and expectations

5

Prosopagnosia

Temporal lobe damage that allows sensation but not perception

Recognize that it is a face but not who's face, even own...not top down processing

6

Psychophysics

Study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, our psychological experience of them

7

Absolute threshold

The minimum stimulus needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time

8

Signal detection theory

A theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus (signal) amid background stimulation (noise)

Assumes there is no single absolute threshold and that detection depends partly on a persons experiences, expectations, motivation, and level of fatigue

9

Subliminal

Below ones absolute threshold for conscious awareness

10

Priming

The activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing ones perception, memory or response

11

Difference threshold

The minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time

We experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference

12

Webers law

The principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by constant minimum percentage rather than a constant amount

13

Sensory adaptation

Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation

14

Transduction

Conversion of one form of energy into another

In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brains can interpret

15

Wavelength

The distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next

short causes blue colors and high pitches and long causes red colors and low pitch

16

Hue

The dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light (blue, green, and so forth)

17

Intensity

Amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, determined by waves amplitude

18

Pupil

The adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters

19

Iris

A ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and and controls the size of the pupil opening

20

Lens

The transparent structure of the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina

21

Accommodation

The process by which the eyes lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina

22

Retina

The light sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information

23

Acuity

The sharpness of vision

24

Rods

Retinal receptors that detects black, white, and grey, necessary for peripheral and twilight vision when cones don't respond

25

Nearsightedness

A condition in which nearby objects are seen more clearly than distant objects because distant objects focus in front of the retina

26

Farsightedness

A condition in which faraway objects are seen more clearly than near objects because the image of near objects is focused behind the retina

27

Cones

Retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and help us perceive color