Chapter 17 No Time To Learn Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 17 No Time To Learn Deck (40):
1

Psychotherapy

an emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties

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Biomedical therapy

prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patients nervous system

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Eclectic approach

an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy

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Psychoanalysis

Freud's therapeutic technique, Freud believed the patients free associations resistance dreams and transference and therapists interpretation of them, released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patients to gain self-insight

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Sigmund freud

developed psychoanalysis (which was the first of the psychological therapies) Freud assumed that many psychological problems are fueled by childhood's residue of repressed impulses and conflicts

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Free association

in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind (no matter how trivial or embarrassing)

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Resistance

in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material

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Interpretation

in psychoanalysis, the analysts noting supposed dream meanings, resistance and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight

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Transference

in psychoanalysis, the patients transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (ex. love or hatred for a parent)

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Client-Centered Therapy (Person-Centered Therapy)

a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic, environment to facilitate clients growth

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Carl Rogers

believed that people are basically good and are endowed with self-actualization tendencies, believed that a growth-promoting climate required 3 conditions (genuiness, acceptance & empathy)

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Active listening

empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restated and clarifies (a feature of Roger's client-centered therapy

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Behavior therapy

therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors

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Counter conditioning

a behavior therapy procedure that conditions how responses to stimuli that triggers unwanted behaviors; based on classical conditioning (includes exposure and aversive)

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Exposure therapy

behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization, that treats anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actually) to the things they fear and avoid

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Systematic desensitization

a type of Counterconditioning that associates a pleasant and relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli (commonly used to treat phobias)

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Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy

an anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to stimulations of their greatest fears (ex. spiders, flying in airplanes, or public speaking)

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Aversive conditioning

a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking)

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Token economy

an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort of exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats

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Cognitive therapies

therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting based on the assumption that though intervene between events and our emotional reactions

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Cognitive-Behavior Therapy

a popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)

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Group Therapy

normally consists of 6-9 people attending a 90 minute session that can help more people and costs less (clients benefit from knowing others have similar problems)

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Family therapy

therapy that treats the family as a system, views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members; attempts to guide family members toward positive relationships and improved communicstions

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Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)

the therapist attempts to unlock and reprocess previous frozen traumatic memories (by waving a finger in front of the eyes of the client)

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Psychopharmacolgy

the study of the effects of drugs on mind

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Placebo effect

experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition which is assumed to be an active agent

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Double blind procedure

an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the researcher are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participant have received the treatment or placebo

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Antipsychotic Drugs

dampen the responsiveness to irrelevant stimuli (thorazine and chlozaril)

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Tardive Dyskinesia

involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and limbs; a possible neurotoxin side effects of long-term use of antipsychotic drugs that target D2 a dopamine receptors

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Antianxiety

depress the central nervous system activity and in combination with psychotherapy (Xanax or Ativan)

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Antidepressant Drugs

improve the mood by elevating levels of serotonin by inhibiting reuptake

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Selective-Serotonin-Reuptake-Inhibitors

(Prozac, Zoloft, and Paxil) drugs that block the re uptake of serotonin

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Lithium

a common salt, used to stabilize manic episodes in bipolar disorders, moderates the levels of norepinephrine and glutamate neurotransmitters

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Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)

a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient

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Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)

the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity

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Psychosurgery

surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior

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Lobotomy

a now rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients

the procedure cut the nerves that connect the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain

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Regression toward the mean

The tendency for unusual events to return to their average state

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Meta analysis

A procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies

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Light exposure therapy

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) a form of depression, has been effectively treated by light closure therapy. Scientifically validated