Chapter 4 Part 1 ..I Just Wanna Poo Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Part 1 ..I Just Wanna Poo Deck (28):
1

Developmental psychology

A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span

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Zygote

The fertilized egg: it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo

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Embryo

The developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month

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Fetus

The developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth

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Teratogens

are agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm

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Fetal alcohol syndrome

Physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions

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Rooting reflex

A baby's tendency, when touched on the cheek, to turn toward the touch, open the mouth, and search for the nipple

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Habituation

is decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner

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Maturation

Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience

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Jean Piaget

Famous developmental psychologist. Studied children. Studied four development stages

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Schemas

A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information

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Assimilation

Interpreting ones new experience in terms of one's existing schemas

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Accommodation

Adapting one's current understanding (schemas) to incorporate new information

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Cognition

All the mental activities associated with thinking knowing remembering and communicating

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Sensorimotor stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities

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Object permanence

The awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived

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Conservation

The principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects

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Pre operational stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic

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Egocentrism

In Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty in taking another's point of view

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Theory of mind

People's ideas about their own and others' mental states - about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict

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Autism

A disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind

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Concrete operation stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (6-7 to 11) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events

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Formal operation stage

In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts

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Stranger anxiety

is the fear of strangers that develops at around 8 months. This is the age at which infants form schemas for familiar faces and cannot assimilate a new face

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Mary ainsworth

was an American-Canadian developmental psychologist known for her work in early emotional attachment with the Strange Situation design, as well as her work in the development of attachment theory

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Attachment

An emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation

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Secure statement

Placed in a strange situation, 60% of children express secure attachment, i.e., they explore their environment happily in the presence of their mothers. When their mother leave, they show distress

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Insecure attachment

The other 30% show insecure attachment. These children cling to their mothers or caregivers and are less likely to explore the environment