Name the four components that characterize abnormal behavior.
- maladaptive to situational functioning
- labeled as abnormal in society
- characterized by perceptual or cognitive dysfunction
How many of the four components of abnormal behavior are necessary for a positive diagnosis?
What is psychopathology the study of?
origin, development, and manifestations of mental or behavioral disorders
Why is the word "insanity" not used in psychology?
Insanity is a legal, rather than a medical description
In the medical model of abnormal behavior, what is defined as the apparent cause and development of an illness?
probable course of an illness
According to the psychoanalytic perspective, interactions among the __________, __________, and __________ are responsible for abnormal behavior.
id; ego; superego
Which psychological perspective contends that abnormal behavior results from internal conflict in the unconscious?
Which theoretical perspective claims that abnormal behavior results from people being too sensitive to criticisms and judgments?
Which psychopathological approach aims to correct abnormal behavior by changing the faulty or illogical thoughts that characterize it?
The behavioral approach believes that abnormal behavior has at some point been rewarded or reinforced.
According to the __________ perspective, chemical or structural abnormalities are responsible for the manifestation of abnormal behavior.
The sociocultural perspective emphasizes __________ and __________ in defining the parameters of acceptable behavior.
This perspective believes that abnormal behavior occurs when psychological mechanisms do not effectively perform their naturally selected functions?
Although each of the psychopathological perspectives has different views on the etiology of abnormal behavior, they all agree that disorders have multiple causes.
Name the three classes of causes.
What is a predisposing cause?
environmental or genetic influence that exists before the onset of the disorder; increases vulnerability to the disorder
What is the name for an event that triggers the onset of a disorder?
What is a maintaining cause?
factor that makes the disorder more likely to continue
What is the purpose of the DSM-IV-TR?
to identify and classify psychological disorders using diagnostic criteria
How many axes are used in order to obtain a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis?
Which of the following disorders would be found on Axis I of the DSM-IV-TR:
- histrionic personality disorder
- mental retardation
Major disorders are found on Axis I, while personality disorders and mental retardation are found on Axis II.
What two classes of disorders are found on Axis II of the DSM-IV-TR?
Which axis of the DSM-IV-TR assesses the patient's general health?
Which axis of the DSM-IV-TR is used to assess the effects of a patient's divorce or job loss, for example?
Axis IV assesses the personal level of psychosocial and environmental stress.
What does Axis V of the DSM-IV-TR assess?
general level of functioning
It is possible to have a diagnosis on both Axes I and II of the DSM-IV-TR.
Name three shortcomings of the DSM-IV-TR.
The DSM-IV-TR is just a guide; cannot describe every symptom and diagnosis
It is overly reliant on the medical aspects of understanding disordered behavior
It is quick to use labels, which can lead to stigmas
What two overwhelming features characterize anxiety disorders?
Feelings of dread and worry, along with constant autonomic nervous system arousal, characterize which disorder?
generalized anxiety disorder
What factors characterize panic disorders?