Name two things that we can do in a state of consciousness, while remaining aware that we are doing them.
- evaluate the environment
- filter information from the environment through the mind
While William James referred to consciousness as stream of thought, others, such as Robert Sternberg have deemed it a __________, created to help us adapt to the world and establish our personal identity.
state of focused awareness
What are the two important functions of consciousness?
monitoring ourselves, our environment, and our relationship with the environment
controlling role, planning responses to the information gathered about the environment
What are the lower levels of consciousness?
What kind of information is stored in the preconscious level?
information that is available to consciousness, but is not always in consciousness
Preconscious information can be retrieved when needed; it is the storage site for many automatic behaviors.
What information is stored at the subconscious level?
The subconscious stores information that we have been primed to but are not consciously aware of.
According to some psychologists, where do we store memories or information that are too difficult to process consciously?
Which level of consciousness is devoted to processes, such as hormone secretion, that are completely inaccesible to conscious awareness?
__________ describes the moving of anxiety-producing information from the conscious to subconscious; sometimes, however, this information is revealed through __________, in which we produce psychologically meaningful mistakes.
Repression; freudian slips
Consciousness lies on a continuum, beginning at __________ and moving onto automatic processing.
The __________ controls our homeostatic functioning, which is evident in processes such as temperature regulation.
Name three functionings that are controlled by the forebrain, reticular formation, and thalamus.
Name one mechanical task that could be characterized under automatic processing.
brushing your teeth
In consciousness, what is sleep, and what is it necessary for?
Sleep is an altered state of consciousness that is important for restorative processes.
What are two restorative functions of sleep?
maintaining plasticity of neural connections for storing and retrieving memories (consolidation)
What are four effects of sleep deprivation?
inability to concentrate
According to sleep research, three to four days without sleep can begin to induce what three symptoms?
Deprivation can also lead to other similar psychological disturbances.
When are debilitating symptoms of sleep-deprivation alleviated?
as soon as the subject is allowed to sleep again
What neurochemical is important in the role of sleep?
What is the difference between circadian rhythms and free-running rhythms?
Circadian rhythm is the 24-hour day-to-night pattern that our body's physiological markers follow; free-running rhythm is the 25-hour rhythm that our bodies follow if all time cues (sunlight, clocks, etc.) are removed.
What sort of disturbance is associated with the feelings of jet-lag?
Jet-lag results from disturbances to our circadian rhythms through external stimuli, like crossing time zones.
What does an electroencephalogram (EEG) measure, and why is this important?
EEGs measure brain-wave patterns that provide information of our brain's electrical activity in sleep cycles.
What is a hypnagogic sleep state?
It is a semiwakeful state of dreamlike awareness with feelings of relaxation and failure to respond to stimuli.
In an EEG, __________ are shown when we are awake and focused on a task; when we shift into a more relaxed state, we see __________, and when we begin to fall asleep, we see __________.
beta waves; alpha waves; theta waves
In what sleep stage do sleep spindles appear?
K complexes are large, slow waves that tend to break up what?
At what stage of sleep are the skeletal muscles relaxing?
What waves are most common in stages 3 and 4 of sleep (although a greater proportion occur in stage 4)?
What is REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep, and what is it typically associated with?
REM sleep is the last stage of sleep in which the eyes move vigorously; it is heavily associated with dreaming, although dreaming can occur in other stages as well.
What brain waves are predominantly present during REM sleep?
theta and beta waves
Why is REM sleep sometimes referred to as paradoxical sleep?
Our brain waves resemble those observed when we are awake, but we are asleep.
Approximately how long is each sleep cycle?
As the period of sleep progresses, what happens to stages 3 and 4, as compared with REM sleep?
Stages 3 and 4 diminish and eventually disappear as sleep progresses, while with REM stage gets longer
Why is it that we remember dreams occurring towards the end of sleep moreso than those towards the beginning?
As sleep progresses and REM gets longer, dreams are longer (approximately one hour); due to their proximity to an awakened state and their length, it is much easier to remember them than the shorter, distant dreams of earlier sleep.
What theory of dreaming, proposed by McCarley and Hobson, claims that during sleep, the brain generates neuronal stimulation that the dreamer attempts to make sense of through creation of a story line?
the activation-synthesis theory of dreams
What is the ability to be aware of and direct dreams?
What is REM rebound and who discovered it?
Discovered by William Dement, it is the idea that if we are deprived of REM sleep for one cycle and then allowed to sleep normally, our REM periods will increase.
What is insomnia?
a lack of sleep (can be either an inability to fall asleep or an inability to maintain sleep)
Which of the following is not a known, possible cause of insomnia: stress, stimulants (like caffeine), hunger, alcohol.
What is the defining characteristic of Narcolepsy?
the inability to stay awake
Narcoleptics experience irresistible urges to sleep at inappropriate times.
Narcoleptic sleep is primarily what kind of sleep?
What is sleep apnea?
disorder in which a person repeatedly stops breathing during sleep
In adults, sleep apnea is associated with __________ and __________; in infants, it is associated with __________.
obesity; alcohol consumption; SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome)
What is sleepwalking and in what stages does it occur?
characterized by walking (and perhaps also talking) during sleep; it occurs during stages 3 and 4 of sleep.
Sleepwalking is also known as somnambulism.
According to psychoanalytic theory, the story content of the dream, also known as the __________, offers important information about the unconscius processes.
In contrast to the story of the dream, which offers insight into the symbols relating to the unconscious, the __________ discloses the actual underlying meaning of the dream.
According to the information-processing theory of dreaming, what do dreams provide?
This theory suggests that our minds have an opportunity to process daily stress through dreams, since we spend more time in REM sleep during times of stress.
What three processes occur during dreams?
consolidation of memories
What is an elaborate, anxiety or fear-producing dream sequence?
What is the main difference between nightmares and night terrors, which involve behaviors such as screaming and crying?
nightmares generally occur during REM sleep, while night terrors occur in much deeper sleep states (perhaps overlapping with somnambulism)
What is the state of consciousness that is heavily associated with susceptibility to suggestion?
Some researchers believe that hypnosis is the process of a person "playing the part" of someone under hypnosis, rather than an altered state of consciousness. What is this theory called?
What does the state theory of hypnosis believe?
It suggests that, instead of fully altering states of consciousness, hypnosis allows people to focus more or less on certain parts of our consciousness, like pain awareness.
What was Ernest Hilgard's theory on hypnosis?
He hypothesized a choice to dissociate from certain parts of consciousness during hypnosis, called the dissociation theory.
What theory of hypnosis, related to the dissociation theory, postulates a dissociation of the mind into two parts: one obeys the hypnotist while the other observes?
theory of the hidden observer
Which school of thought relies on hypnosis to extract memories that have been repressed?
What is the phenomenon through which we forget what happened during hypnosis?
What is posthypnotic suggestion?
instructions given to people while they are hypnotized that are meant to be implemented after they awake
What is defined by a set of techniques used to focus concentration away from thoughts and feelings to create calmness, tranquility, and inner peace?
Chemicals that can pass through the blood-brain barrier into the brain to alter perception, thinking, behavior, and mood are known as __________.
What characterizes psychological dependence?
an intense desire to achieve the drugged state in spite of adverse effects
When does physiological dependence develop?
when changes in brain chemistry from taking a drug necessitate taking the drug again to prevent withdrawal symptoms
Although partly dependent on the environmental stimuli associated with taking the drug, __________ is characterized by decreased responsivity to a drug.
A desire to eat more while trying to quit smoking is an example of what?
a withdrawal symptom
What do agonists do?
Agonists act like specific neurotransmitters, copying their functions.
What does a chemical antagonist do?
It fits into the receptor site for a neurotransmitter so that the neurotransmitter itself is blocked.
Which classification of drugs, including sedatives like barbiturates and alcohol, reduces the activity of the central nervous system?
Which of the following is not a depressant: alcohol, nicotine, barbiturates, tranquilizers?
Which depressant drug is important due to its ability to reduce anxiety without inducing sleep?
Which depressant has its effects on the brain through decreasing dopamine levels?
Which class of drugs, used to treat hyperactivity and narcolepsy, activates motivational centers while reducing inhibitory centers of the central nervous system?
What common stimulant can lead to insomnia?
Name two behavioral effects of amphetamines.
motor dysfunction (at high doses)
Which stimulant increases heart rate and blood pressure, and elicits feelings of increased abilities (both mental and social)?
Although the physiological effects of this drug characterize it as a stimulant, it elicits both depressant behavioral effects (such as decreased appetite) and stimulant effects. What is this drug?
Name three effects of the narcotic class of drugs (which includes codeine, heroin, and morphine).
feelings of euphoria
What are three effects of the hallucinogenic class of drugs?
evoking sensory images in the absence of sensory input
What are some characteristics of opiates?