Name two things that we can do in a state of consciousness, while remaining aware that we are doing them.
- evaluate the environment
- filter information from the environment through the mind
While William James referred to consciousness as stream of thought, others, such as Robert Sternberg have deemed it a __________, created to help us adapt to the world and establish our personal identity.
state of focused awareness
What are the two important functions of consciousness?
monitoring ourselves, our environment, and our relationship with the environment
controlling role, planning responses to the information gathered about the environment
What are the lower levels of consciousness?
What kind of information is stored in the preconscious level?
information that is available to consciousness, but is not always in consciousness
Preconscious information can be retrieved when needed; it is the storage site for many automatic behaviors.
What information is stored at the subconscious level?
The subconscious stores information that we have been primed to but are not consciously aware of.
According to some psychologists, where do we store memories or information that are too difficult to process consciously?
Which level of consciousness is devoted to processes, such as hormone secretion, that are completely inaccesible to conscious awareness?
__________ describes the moving of anxiety-producing information from the conscious to subconscious; sometimes, however, this information is revealed through __________, in which we produce psychologically meaningful mistakes.
Repression; freudian slips
Consciousness lies on a continuum, beginning at __________ and moving onto automatic processing.
The __________ controls our homeostatic functioning, which is evident in processes such as temperature regulation.
Name three functionings that are controlled by the forebrain, reticular formation, and thalamus.
Name one mechanical task that could be characterized under automatic processing.
brushing your teeth
In consciousness, what is sleep, and what is it necessary for?
Sleep is an altered state of consciousness that is important for restorative processes.
What are two restorative functions of sleep?
maintaining plasticity of neural connections for storing and retrieving memories (consolidation)
What are four effects of sleep deprivation?
inability to concentrate
According to sleep research, three to four days without sleep can begin to induce what three symptoms?
Deprivation can also lead to other similar psychological disturbances.
When are debilitating symptoms of sleep-deprivation alleviated?
as soon as the subject is allowed to sleep again
What neurochemical is important in the role of sleep?
What is the difference between circadian rhythms and free-running rhythms?
Circadian rhythm is the 24-hour day-to-night pattern that our body's physiological markers follow; free-running rhythm is the 25-hour rhythm that our bodies follow if all time cues (sunlight, clocks, etc.) are removed.
What sort of disturbance is associated with the feelings of jet-lag?
Jet-lag results from disturbances to our circadian rhythms through external stimuli, like crossing time zones.
What does an electroencephalogram (EEG) measure, and why is this important?
EEGs measure brain-wave patterns that provide information of our brain's electrical activity in sleep cycles.
What is a hypnagogic sleep state?
It is a semiwakeful state of dreamlike awareness with feelings of relaxation and failure to respond to stimuli.
In an EEG, __________ are shown when we are awake and focused on a task; when we shift into a more relaxed state, we see __________, and when we begin to fall asleep, we see __________.
beta waves; alpha waves; theta waves
In what sleep stage do sleep spindles appear?
K complexes are large, slow waves that tend to break up what?
At what stage of sleep are the skeletal muscles relaxing?
What waves are most common in stages 3 and 4 of sleep (although a greater proportion occur in stage 4)?
What is REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep, and what is it typically associated with?
REM sleep is the last stage of sleep in which the eyes move vigorously; it is heavily associated with dreaming, although dreaming can occur in other stages as well.