Personality Flashcards Preview

AP® Psychology > Personality > Flashcards

Flashcards in Personality Deck (108)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

In order for one’s “general style of dealing with others and the environment” to be considered their “personality,” what must it be?

A

enduring

2
Q

What are the four broad theories of personality?

A
  1. psychoanalytic
  2. humanistic
  3. social-cognitive
  4. trait theories
3
Q

Who is credited as being the “leader” of the psychoanalytic school of thought?

A

Sigmund Freud

4
Q

What is psychodynamic theory?

A

a psychological approach based on a marriage of Freudian concepts (i.e. the subconscious) with more modern ideas

5
Q

According to Freud, what two parts could the mind be divided into?

A
  1. the conscious
  2. the subconscious
6
Q

Freud referred to mental energy as __________.

A

libido

7
Q

Although Freud contended that the subconscious plays a major role in behavior, its contents are not accessible. They become accessible through __________ or revealing the __________ of dreams.

A

freudian slips; latent content

8
Q

This level, just below the level of conscious awareness, contains thoughts, memories, feelings, and images that are easily recalled.

A

preconscious

9
Q

According to Freud, what two factors lie within the subconscious?

A
  1. motivations
  2. source of one’s problems
10
Q

What is free association?

A

the patient reports whatever comes to mind, while the therapist analyzes the responses and looks for themes that may reveal the subconscious

11
Q

Freud believed in dream analysis; he composed a list of __________, items or events that appeared in dreams but in reality represent other items or events in the subconscious.

A

Freudian symbols

12
Q

What three distinct components comprise the mind, according to Freud?

A
  1. id
  2. ego
  3. superego
13
Q

Name two things that the id is the ‘source’ of?

A
  1. mental energy
  2. drive
14
Q

On which principle does the id operate?

A

the pleasure principle

15
Q

The pleasure principle is the desire to __________ while __________.

A

maximize pleasure; minimizing pain

16
Q

The superego, the acknowledged opposite of the __________, is an internal representation of society’s rules, morals, and obligations.

A

id

17
Q

Name two things that the ego allows us to accomplish in everyday life?

A
  1. functioning in the environment
  2. acting logically
18
Q

On which principle does the ego operate?

A

the reality principle

19
Q

What is the reality principle?

A

the set of desires that can be satisfied only if the means to satisfy them exists and is available

20
Q

What kind of thought is the ego most involved in?

A

conscious thought

21
Q

What two things does the ego attempt to balance?

A
  1. the interaction with the environment
  2. the opposing forces of the id and superego
22
Q

According to Freud, we use defense mechanisms to deal with what?

A

anxiety produced by the id-superego conflict

23
Q

Repression, a type of defense mechanism, describes the process by which anxiety-provoking memories or desires are moved to the __________.

A

subconscious

24
Q

If, after an argument, a child shows anger not towards his friend, with whom he is angry, but to a stuffed animal, what defense mechanism is he exhibiting?

A

displacement

25
Q

In __________, the ego completely reverses a desire to make it safer or more socially acceptable.

A

reaction formation

26
Q

If I make up for a failure to understand math by excelling in critical reading, what defense mechanism am I exhibiting?

A

compensation

27
Q

What defense mechanism uses logic to excuse emotional or irrational behavior?

A

rationalization

28
Q

Regression involves reverting to what kind of behaviors?

A

childish behaviors

29
Q

What is denial?

A

refusal to acknowledge or accept unwanted beliefs or actions

30
Q

Which defense mechanism involves the channelling or redirecting of sexual or aggressive feelings into a more socially acceptable outlet?

A

sublimation

31
Q

What describes man’s inherent envy towards woman’s ability to nurture and sustain life?

A

womb envy

32
Q

What are the five stages of psychoanalytic development?

A
  1. oral stage
  2. anal stage
  3. phallic stage
  4. latency period
  5. genital stage
33
Q

In Karen Horney’s theory of personality, what is important in forming the basis of the adult personality?

A

interactions between the child and the parent as the child deals with basic anxiety

34
Q

What characterizes basic anxiety, a main tenet in Karen Horney’s theory of personality?

A

the feeling of being alone in an unfamiliar or hostile world

35
Q

Carl Jung’s theory of personality is based on the idea that the mind comprises pairs of __________.

A

opposing forces

36
Q

What, according to Carl Jung’s theory, is the persona?

A

the mask that each person presents to the outside world

37
Q

Carl Jung would describe the deep, passionate, inner person as that person’s __________.

A

shadow

38
Q

According to Jung, each person contains a female and a male side to our personality, or an __________ and __________.

A

anima; animus

39
Q

According to Jung’s theory, what is the purpose of the self?

A

to balance the opposing forces and the desires of the mind

40
Q

What are the two divisions of unconsciousness in Jung’s theory?

A
  1. personal unconsciousness
  2. collective unconscious
41
Q

What comprises the personal unconsciousness?

A

repressed memories and clusters of thought

42
Q

What can be found in the collective unconscious?

A

behavior and memory common to all humans and passed down from our ancient and common ancestors

43
Q

Archetypes, found in the collective unconscious, are characterized as what?

A

the behaviors and memories in the collective unconscious

44
Q

Alfred Adler’s theory of personality speculated that children develop feelings of __________ due to their size and level of competence, and they spend the rest of their lives trying to overcome it.

A

inferiority

45
Q

According to Adler, the best way to overcome inferiority is through development of __________; failure to do so could result in the development of a(n) __________.

A

social interest; inferiority complex

46
Q

What do the humanistic theories of personality emphasize?

A

the uniqueness and richness of being human

47
Q

What two aspects do the humanistic theories focus on?

A
  1. subjective reality
  2. subjective mental events
48
Q

According to the humanist perspective, what is the ultimate purpose for existence?

A

self-actualization

49
Q

What characterizes self-actualization?

A

creatively becoming the person you are capable of being

50
Q

Name two humanistic theorists.

A
  1. Abraham Maslow
  2. Carl Rogers
51
Q

What is the self-concept?

A

the mental representation of who we feel we truly are

52
Q

According to humanist theory, when do internal conflicts arise?

A

when we experience incongruence between our self-concept and our actual thoughts and behaviors

53
Q

According to Rogers, __________ distort our self-concept

A

conditions of worth

54
Q

What are conditions of worth, according to Rogers?

A

other people’s evaluations of our worth

55
Q

In Rogerian theory, __________ is meant to combat the conditions of worth that are often imposed and can lead to unhealthy self-concepts.

A

unconditional positive regard

56
Q

What do social-cognitive theories assume about personality?

A

that cognitive constructs are the basis of the personality

57
Q

In social-cognitive theory, how are constructs developed and modified?

A

through learning in social environments

58
Q

Albert Bandura focused on the idea of __________ as central to personality.

A

self-efficacy

59
Q

What does self-efficacy encompass?

A

one’s beliefs about his/her own abilities in a given situation

60
Q

Which social-cognitive theory of personality, proposed by Julian Rotter, believes that effort has a major role in personality?

A

locus of control theory

61
Q

What is the difference between people who have an internal locus of control and those who have an external locus of control?

A

Those with an internal locus of control believe that successes or failures are a direct result of their efforts; those with an external locus of control are more likely to attribute successes or failures to luck or chance.

62
Q

According to trait theorists, traits are largely __________ rather than acquired through experience.

A

inherited

63
Q

What are the big five personality traits?

A
  1. introversion/extroversion
  2. neuroticism/stability
  3. agreeableness/antagonism
  4. conscientiousness/undirectedness
  5. openness/non-openness
64
Q

This statistical measure allows researchers to use correlations between traits to see which traits cluster together as factors.

A

factor analysis

65
Q

Define:

heritability

A

a measure of the amount of variation in a trait in a certain population that is due to genetics

66
Q

What are two methods of trait research analysis?

A
  1. nomothetic analysis
  2. idiographic analysis
67
Q

What is the main difference between nomothetic and idiographic traits?

A

Nomothetic traits are thought to be universal (i.e. the big five), while idiographic traits are unique to the individual.

68
Q

According to Gordon Allport, what are the three types of traits?

A
  1. cardinal
  2. central
  3. secondary
69
Q

According to Allport, a trait that overrides one’s whole being is a __________, while __________ are the person’s primary characteristics, and traits that constitute interests are __________.

A

cardinal trait; central traits; secondary

70
Q

The theory that we try to make sense of the world by generating, testing, and revising hypotheses about our social reality, was developed by George Kelly. It is known as what?

A

personal construct theory

71
Q

Which theorist is known for recognizing that traits often vary depending on circumstances?

A

Walter Mischel

72
Q

According to the cognitive-affective personality system (CAPS) developed by Walter Mischel, interaction among five factors and characteristics of the situation account for individual behavior differences across situations. What are these five factors?

A
  1. encoding strategies
  2. expectancies and beliefs
  3. goals and values
  4. feelings
  5. personal competencies and self-regulatory processes
73
Q

What are behavioral signatures?

A

consistent ways of responding in similar situations that characterize our personality

74
Q

Hans Eysenck used factor analysis to identify common behavioral traits along three dimensions. What are they?

A
  1. extroversion
  2. neuroticism
  3. psychoticism
75
Q

Raymond Cattel believed that __________, the person’s underlying characteristics, were the basis of personality and gave rise to __________.

A

source traits; surface traits

76
Q

What is one main problem with Freud’s psychoanalytic theory?

A

theory was not developed through empirical testing

77
Q

What is one problem with the humanistic theory?

A

lacks empirical evidence and has an overly optimistic outlook on life

78
Q

What is one problem with the cognitive theory?

A

does not account for the breadth of humanness

79
Q

What is one problem with trait theories?

A

unable to explain the origin of personality

80
Q

Typically, what does psychoanalytic assessment involve?

A

a one-on-one therapist and patient relationship, in which the therapist uses techniques (such as free association and dream recall) to gain access to the unconscious

81
Q

What makes it difficult to assess someone on a humanistic level?

A

The personal nature of the self makes it impossible for a test or assessment tool to measure the levels at which someone is being true to his “real” self.

82
Q

Name three assessment tools used by trait theorists.

A
  1. Eysenck Personality Inventory
  2. 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire
  3. MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory)
83
Q

What is the Hawthorne Effect?

A

a flaw in naturalistic observational studies; when people know that they are being observed, they change their behavior to what they think the observer expects, or to present themselves well

84
Q

What is the difference between self-concept and self-esteem?

A

Self-concept refers to how we view ourselves; self-esteem refers to how much we value ourselves

85
Q

What are the two parts of self-understanding?

A
  1. me
  2. I
86
Q

What four components characterize the “me” of self-understanding?

A
  1. physical self
  2. active self
  3. social self
  4. psychological self
87
Q

What two factors comprise the physical self in self-understanding?

A
  1. body
  2. name
88
Q

Under what sector of “me”, in self-understanding, would one find behaviors?

A

the active self

89
Q

What does the social self, found in the “me” of self-understanding, descibe?

A

how we interact with others

90
Q

What sector of the “me” in self-understanding is comprised of our feelings and personalities?

A

the psychological self

91
Q

What is the role of the “I” in self-understanding, and what is it responsible for?

A

The “I” is the self-knower, and is responsible for the coordination and interpretation of the four parts of the “me.”

92
Q

What allows us to reflect on ourselves and have a self-concept?

A

the “I” in self-understanding

93
Q

What is the halo effect?

A

the error by which we generalize a high self-evaluation from one domain to another

94
Q

What are the eleven domains of competency within which we evaluate ourselves?

A
  1. morality
  2. sociability
  3. intimacy
  4. athleticism
  5. intelligence
  6. sense of humor
  7. nurturance
  8. job competence
  9. adequacy as a provider
  10. physical appearance
  11. household management
95
Q

What are two side effects of low self-esteem?

A
  1. reluctance to try new tasks
  2. reluctance to persist at tasks already started
96
Q

If I were to take pride in the accomplishments of an individual with whom I strongly affiliate, what theory would I be engaging in?

A

basking in reflective glory

97
Q

What is the early-appearing set of individual differences in reaction and regulation?

A

temperament

98
Q

William Sheldon’s somatotype theory claims that certain personality traits are associated with each of three body types. What are they?

A
  1. endodorph (fat)
  2. mesomorph (muscular)
  3. ectomorph (thin)
99
Q

The theory of triadic reciprocality, proposed by Al Bandura, is based off of what idea?

A

that each factor of personality (traits, environment, behavior) influences the others in a constant and loop-like fashion

100
Q

Used primarily by psychoanalysts, __________ present ambiguous stimuli (i.e. inkblots) with the assumption that test takers will project their unconscious thoughts onto the stimuli.

A

projective personality tests

101
Q

What three factors must be present in order for a trait to be considered part of temperament?

A
  1. early-appearing
  2. stable
  3. constitutionally-based
102
Q

Mary Rothbart assessed temperament on three scales: __________, __________, and__________.

A
  1. surgency
  2. negative affect
  3. effortful control
103
Q

Andrew is a straight-A student who needs to be in charge of all his group projects and gets angry at his group members when they aren’t chipping in. Ike is more go-with-the-flow and isn’t easily angered. Which has the type A personality and which has the type B personality?

A

Andrew has the type A personality

Ike has the type B personality

104
Q

What are the defining characteristics of stage theories?

A

Stage theories believe people develop in stages, or steps, in the same order, and one stage can be distinguished from all other stages.

105
Q

What are the stages of Freud’s psychosexual stage theory?

A
  1. oral stage (birth to one year)
  2. anal stage (one to three years)
  3. phallic stage (three to five years)
  4. latency stage (six years to puberty)
  5. genital stage (puberty onward)

For more information, see the Developmental Psychology cards.

106
Q

What assessment technique attempts to ensure consistency in test results?

A

reliability

107
Q

What does validity measure?

A

accuracy; assesses whether or not the test measures what it is supposed to measure

108
Q

What research effect observes that individuals will claim general descriptions of their personality (that can apply to a wide range of people) are highly accurate?

A

Barnum effect