Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
Define behavior as it relates to psychology.
__________ are defined as internal experiences, including feelings and thoughts.
Why is psychology a scientific study?
uses empirical data to disprove hypotheses
describes, predicts, and explains behavior and mental processes
systematic collection and observation of data
An example of the nature vs. nurture controversy is whether intelligence is __________ or derives from __________.
Define dualism as it relates to psychology.
idea that the mind and body are separate entities that interact
When you think of Dualism you should think of Descartes, who said “I think therefore I am” (Cogito ergo sum).
What is monism?
the idea that the brain and the mind are the same thing, and that every mental state is reducible to an identical brain state
Plato and Descartes, believers in dualism, are on the side of __________ in the nature vs. nurture controversy.
Descartes believed knowledge was innate and the pineal gland was considered the mind.
Which side in the nature vs. nurture controversy are Aristotle and Locke, believers in monism, on?
Locke's "tabula rasa" translates to "blank slate" suggesting that knowledge is learned through experience.
Psychology grew out of which discipline(s) in Ancient Greece?
philosophy, physiology, and biology
Who is credited with the foundation of scientific psychology?
Wilhelm Wundt, who performed the earliest studies in 1879 in Germany, is considered the father of the discipline of psychology. He created the first lab dedicated to psychological research, and wanted to measure consciousness.
__________ examines the structure of the mind and basic elements of consciousness. Proponents of this system felt that consciousness should be the data of psychology and the best way to research was by using individuals who were trained in introspection.
Introspection is the process whereby observers look inward and objectively analyze their sensory experience.
Name the first president of the American Psychological Association (APA).
G. Stanley Hall
Who was Edward Titchener?
Titchener, a researcher at Cornell University, was one of the earliest structuralists. He felt that psychology should study the structure of consciousness, and that meant studying sensations, images, and affections (emotions).
__________ was the first woman to receive her Ph.D. in psychology.
Margaret Floy Washburn
Define functionalism as it relates to psychology.
Functionalism was the school of thought that was a reaction to structuralism. Functionalism studies how the mind adapts to its environment. Functionalism was interested in individual differences, whereas structuralism was interested in groups of people.
Who was Mary Whiton Calkins?
first female president of the American Psychological Association (APA)
Name three of the earliest functionalists.
How did William James contribute to functionalism?
James published psychology's first textbook, called The Principles of Psychology, from a functionalist perspective.
Behavior results from learning through experience.
What is behavior modification?
set of techniques to help individuals unlearn habits that have led to psychological problems
Describe Ivan Pavlov's classical conditioning experiments.
Pavlov, an early behaviorist, in his famous classical conditioning experiment, trained dogs to salivate in response to the sound of a bell.
What did John Watson believe psychology should study?
Watson, one of the earliest behaviorists, felt psychology should be the science of overt behavior and reject the study of mental processes.
Who is the psychologist behind operant conditioning of rats and pigeons?
training organisms to repeat responses that lead to rewards and not to repeat responses that lead to punishment
What is the key premise in Gestalt psychology?
Gestalt psychology stresses that the whole process should be studied, rather than specific parts.
- Gestalt psychology was a reaction to structuralism
- While structuralism seeks to study the elements that make up consciousness, Gestalt psychology stresses the idea that the “whole is greater than the sum of its parts"
Max Wertheimer was a _____ psychologist.
What are the ABCs of behavior according to the behavioral approach?
antecedent environmental conditions
consequences of behavior
Where do behavioral geneticists believe behavior comes from?
particular behaviors are attributed to genetically-based psychological characteristics