Treatment of Abnormal Behavior Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Treatment of Abnormal Behavior Deck (90)
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1
Q

What is a psychiatrist?

A

a medical doctor (M.D.) who can prescribe medicine and perform surgery

2
Q

Name the type of mental health practitioner described:

These individuals have their Ph.D. or Psy.D. and treat patients using a variety of therapeutic approaches.

A

clinical psychologists

3
Q

Counseling psychologists have earned a Ph.D., Ed.D., Psy.D., or M.A. and deal with what types of issues?

A

Counseling psychologists deal with less severe mental health problems, including marital therapy.

4
Q

What type of mental health practitioners follow the teaching of Sigmund Freud?

A

psychoanalysts

5
Q

What type of degree do social workers typically hold?

A

Social workers must earn their Master’s degree in social work (M.S.W.).

6
Q

What current approach is most similar to the beliefs of ancient Greeks, such as Hippocrates and Galen?

A

biological

2000 years ago, Greek physicians believed psychological problems had physical causes.

7
Q

Define:

deinstitutionalization

A

a 1950s movement which relocated nonthreatening patients from mental hospitals to community centers

8
Q

What was the main consequence of deinstitutionalization?

A

Deinstitutionalization created an increase in the homeless population.

9
Q

The process of __________ synthesizes the results of several research studies about the same variables.

A

meta-analysis

10
Q

Define:

psychotherapy

A

therapy that treats the mind, not the body

11
Q

__________ therapies help clients become self-aware of their problems in order to change behavior.

A

Insight

12
Q

List the five types of insight therapy.

A
  1. psychoanalysis
  2. psychodynamic therapy
  3. interpersonal psychotherapy
  4. humanistic client-centered therapy
  5. Gestalt therapy
13
Q

According to the psychoanalytic approach, where does abnormal behavior come from?

A

unconscious internal conflict and early childhood trauma

14
Q

What is the goal of psychoanalysis?

A

to give the patient insight by bringing their conflicts into the conscious mind

15
Q

Describe traits of traditional psychoanalysis.

A
  • several meetings a week for years
  • therapist is not visible to client
  • free association
  • dream interpretation
16
Q

Asking the patient to say whatever comes to mind without censoring is asking the patient to engage in a psychoanalytic technique called __________.

A

free association

17
Q

Define manifest content as it relates to psychoanalysis.

A

surface information recalled about a dream

18
Q

Define latent content as it relates to psychoanalysis.

A

hidden, underlying meaning of content in dreams

19
Q

In psychoanalytic dream interpretation, the surface information is called the __________ content, while the hidden, underlying meaning is termed the __________ content.

A

manifest; latent

20
Q

Define resistance as it relates to psychoanalysis.

A

Resistance is the blocking of feelings or experiences that provoke anxiety.

21
Q

Projecting emotional feelings onto the psychoanalyst is known as __________.

A

transference

22
Q

Define countertransference as it relates to psychoanalysis.

A

psychoanalyst projects emotional feelings onto the patient

23
Q

Define catharsis as it relates to psychoanalysis.

A

the release of emotional tension and anxiety after reliving an emotionally charged experience

24
Q

How does psychodynamic therapy compare with psychoanalysis?

A

Psychodynamic therapy:

  • is shorter in duration
  • occurs less frequently
  • invovles the client facing the therapist
  • does not stress the importance of childhood trauma
25
Q

What type of therapy aims to relieve present symptoms by focusing on the patient’s current situation?

A

interpersonal psychotherapy

26
Q

According to the humanistic approach, where does abnormal behavior come from?

A

external factors have affected the patient’s ability to grow emotionally

27
Q

What is the goal of humanistic therapy?

A

to reduce the difference between the ideal self and the real self

28
Q

Define self-actualization as it relates to humanistic therapy.

A

the process of fulfilling one’s individual potential

29
Q

Explain how humanistic therapy is non-directive.

A

Humanistic therapy is client-centered. Non-directive therapy encourages the client to control the therapeutic route.

30
Q

Define active listening as it relates to humanistic therapy.

A

Active listening involves echoing, restating, and clarifying what the client says and does.

31
Q

Define accurate empathic understanding as it relates to humanistic therapy.

A

therapists try to view the world through the eyes of the client

32
Q

Humanistic therapy provides an atmosphere of acceptance, known as __________.

A

unconditional positive regard

33
Q

Who invented client-centered therapy?

A

Carl Rogers

34
Q

The emphasis on organizing the world in a meaningful way is a principle of __________ psychology.

A

Gestalt

35
Q

Describe traits of traditional Gestalt therapy.

A
  • directive questioning
  • discarding of feelings that lack personal meaning
  • dream interpretation
  • present behavior, feelings, and thoughts
36
Q

Who created Gestalt therapy?

A

Fritz Perls

37
Q

Sigmund Freud is to psychoanalysis as __________ is to behavioral therapy.

A

B.F. Skinner

38
Q

According to the behavioral approach, where does abnormal behavior come from?

A

reinforcement of maladaptive behavior

39
Q

What is the goal of behavior therapy?

A

to replace unwanted behavior with adaptive behavior

40
Q

How does classical conditioning treat abnormal behavior?

A

process of creating associations between neutral stimuli and desired responses

41
Q

Describe the classical conditioning experiment with Little Albert.

A
  • conditioned a nine-month-old baby named Albert to fear a rat
  • Albert wouldn’t cry from the sight of the rat, but cried from loud noise
  • loud noise was played when Baby Albert reached for the rat
  • Albert eventually cried at sight of the rat
42
Q

List three types of classical conditioning.

A
  1. systematic desensitization
  2. flooding
  3. aversive conditioning
43
Q

Systematic desensitization, developed by Joseph Wolpe, is a step-by-step type of classical conditioning that associates feared stimuli with __________.

A

relaxation

44
Q

What is an anxiety hierarchy?

A

a rank of fears associated with a stimulus from least-feared to most-feared

Example:
thinking about a spider
seeing a picture of a spider
touching a toy spider
being in the same room as a real spider
touching a real spider

45
Q

Define flooding as it relates to classical conditioning.

A
  • exposure technique used to eliminate phobias and anxiety issues
  • patient directly confronts the stimulus they fear
46
Q

Name the type of classical conditioning described:

In an attempt to stop drinking, you take a pill that makes you nauseous only when there is alcohol in your system.

A

aversive conditioning

47
Q

Define:

counterconditioning

A
  • replacing undesired conditioned responses with desired responses
  • type of classical conditioning
  • developed by Mary Cover Jones
48
Q

Define:

operant conditioning

A

rewards are used to reinforce target behavior

49
Q

List two examples of operant conditioning.

A
  1. behavior modification
  2. token economies
50
Q

Name the type of operant conditioning described:

small steps are rewarded until the intended goal is achieved

A

behavior modification

51
Q

Name the type of operant conditioning described:

desired behaviors are rewarded with symbolic secondary reinforcers that can be exchanged for valued objects, such as food or money

A

token economy

52
Q

Social skills training helps people get readjusted to society. List the three steps involved.

A
  1. modeling
  2. rehearsal
  3. shaping
53
Q

Define modeling as it relates to social skills training.

A

observing socially skilled people to learn acceptable behavior

54
Q

Define rehearsal as it relates to social skills training.

A

practicing appropriate behavior through role-playing

55
Q

Define shaping as it relates to social skills training.

A

reinforcing and giving feedback about behavior

56
Q

According to the cognitive approach, where does abnormal behavior come from?

A

irrational and flawed thought patterns

57
Q

What is the goal of cognitive therapy?

A

cognitive restructuring, or the process of correcting faulty thoughts and replacing them with positive, realistic thoughts

58
Q

In Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), treatment involves confronting absurd thoughts about the client’s ABCs.

What are the ABCs?

A
  • Actions
  • Beliefs about actions
  • Consequences of beliefs
59
Q

What is the tyranny of the “shoulds” and how do cognitive therapists treat it?

A
  • Individuals engage in absurd or unrealistic behavior because they believe they must
  • Therapists challenge the client’s belief so in defending it, he or she will recognize the absurdity
60
Q

__________ created Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy, while __________ developed the cognitive triad.

A

Albert Ellis; Aaron Beck

61
Q

The cognitive triad examines what a person thinks about his or her __________, __________, and __________.

A

self; world; future

62
Q

How does Martin Seligman relate the cognitive triad to depression?

A

Individuals with depression believe they caused the negative events, the events will affect everything they do, and will last forever.

63
Q

Define dichotomous thinking as it relates to cognitive therapy.

A
  • creating all-or-none conceptions of scenarios
  • maladaptive schema
64
Q

Define arbitrary inferences as they relate to cognitive therapy.

A
  • conclusion drawn without evidence
  • maladaptive schema
65
Q

According to the biological approach, where does abnormal behavior come from?

A

a chemical imbalance of hormones or neurotransmitters; possibly genetic

66
Q

What is the goal of psychopharmacotherapy?

A

Psychotropic drugs are used to restore chemical balance and treat mental disorders.

67
Q

What do psychopharmacologists do to counter the effects of drug tolerance?

A

It is necessary to supplement biomedical treatment with therapy if a patient builds a tolerance to the drug.

68
Q

List the four types of psychotropic drugs.

A
  1. anxiolytics
  2. antidepressants
  3. stimulants
  4. neuroleptics
69
Q

Define:

anxiolytics

A

tranquilizers and antianxiety drugs that contain benzodiazepines, which increase the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA

70
Q

Give examples of:

anxiolytics

A
  • Valium
  • Xanax
  • BuSpar
  • Librium
71
Q

What disorders are anxiolytics used to treat?

A
  • post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
  • panic disorder
  • generalized anxiety disorder
  • agoraphobia
72
Q

Define:

antidepressants

A

elevate mood by making monoamine neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine more available

73
Q

Give examples of:

antidepressants

A
  • monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
  • selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
    • Paxil, Prozac, Zoloft, Lexapro
74
Q

What disorders are antidepressants used to treat?

A
  • major depression
  • obsessive-compulsive disorder
  • panic disorder
  • post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
  • seizures
75
Q

Define:

stimulants

A

psychoactive drugs that increase activity of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine

76
Q

Give examples of:

stimulants

A
  • Ritalin
  • Dexedrine
77
Q

What disorders are stimulants used to treat?

A
  • narcolepsy
  • attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
78
Q

Define:

neuroleptics

A

antipsychotics that reduce psychological tension, stop hallucinations and delusions, improve sleep, and produce appropriate behavior by blocking dopamine receptors

79
Q

Give examples of:

neuroleptics

A
  • Thorazine
  • Haldol
  • Clozaril
80
Q

What disorders are neuroleptics used to treat?

A
  • schizophrenia
  • psychosis
81
Q

What drug is used to treat bipolar disorder?

A

lithium carbonate

82
Q

What are the symptoms of tardive dyskinesia?

A

Tardive dyskinesia, a possible symptom of neuroleptics, leaves people with difficulty walking and involuntary muscle spasms.

83
Q

Define electroconvulsive shock treatment (ECT) as it relates to psychopharmacotherapy.

A

Patients, while under anesthesia, receive an electric shock. Sometimes causing temporary memory loss, ECT is a last resort for treating major depression.

84
Q

How is repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) different from electroconvulsive shock treatment?

A

Although both procedures treat depression, rTMS is:

  • painless
  • pulses travel through magnetic coil attached to area above right eyebrow
  • given daily
85
Q

What is a prefrontal lobotomy?

A
  • popular during 1935-1955
  • psychosurgery (removal of brain tissue)
  • cut neural tracts connecting lower brain regions to frontal lobes
  • treat violent schizophrenia
  • patients left impassive
86
Q

List examples of issues community psychologists help clients cope with.

A
  • unemployment
  • poverty
  • well-baby care
  • suicide prevention
  • sexual health
  • child abuse prevention
87
Q

List four advantages of group therapy, as compared with individual therapy.

A
  1. meet people with similar issues
  2. less verbal patients can open up
  3. input from both therapist and other group members
  4. cheaper
88
Q

What is the main goal of both couples and family therapy?

A

improving communication in relationships

89
Q

A peer support group where sessions are led by the group members themselves is known as a __________.

A

self-help group

90
Q

Name an example of a self-help group.

A

Alcoholics Anonymous