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Flashcards in Developmental Psychology Deck (126)
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1

The life-span perspective of developmental psychology defines it as what? 

 
 

the study of changes in abilities, thoughts,  and behaviors that occur as one ages

 
 

2

What are three key debates in the field of developmental psychology?

 

  1. nature vs. nurture 
  2. continuity vs. discontinuity
  3. stability vs. change 
 

3

Which pervasive debate in developmental psychology deals with the extent to which heredity and the environment each influence behavior?

 

nature vs. nurture debate

 

4

Stability vs. change, a controversy in developmental psychology, deals with what issue? 

 

whether or not personality traits present during infancy endure throughout the lifespan

 

5

Which theorist is credited with successfully championing the view that development occurs across an entire lifetime? 

 

Erik Erikson

 

6

What is the difference between life-span psychologists and child psychologists? 

 

both study development, but child psychologists focus on the earlier portion of the life-span

 

7

What is defined as the typical sequence of developmental changes for a group of people? 

 
 

normative development

 
 

8

What research method is most often used in normative development? 

 
 

cross-sectional method

 
 

9

Describe the cross-sectional method.

 
 
 

this method compares groups of people of different ages on similar tasks

 
 
 

10

What is one shortcoming of the cross-sectional method? 

 

data collected reveals little about the actual development of any single individual

 

11

Describe the longitudinal method.

 
 

involves following a small group of people over a long portion of their lives, assessing change at set intervals

 
 

12

What are two shortcomings of the longitudinal method?

 

  1. difficult to conduct due to attrition of participants
  2. expensive to conduct 
 

13

What is a benefit of the longitudinal method? 

 

the study of individuals over time rules out the differences between subjects that other studies include 

 

14

Describe the cohort effect.

 

when there are differences in the experiences of each age group as a result of growing up in different historical times

 

15

In which study method are cross-sectional groups assessed at least two times over a span of months or years?

 
 

cohort-sequential studies 

 
 

16

What is maturation?

 
 

biological readiness

 
 

17
Maturationists emphasize which of the following?

  • conceptualizing different learning cues and incorporating them into future interactions
  • genetically programmed growth and development of the body
  • learning through various social interactions over the life-time
 

genetically programmed growth and development of the body

 

18

From the maturation perspective of development, what is the benefit of greater preprogrammed physiological development of the brain?

 
 

more complex conceptualization and reasoning

 
 

19

Locke proposed the idea of __________, which states that all development is the direct result of learning; the organism develops more complex behaviors and cognition because it acquires more associations. 

 
 

tabula rasa 

 
 

20
True or false:

Continuous development is gradual.

 

true 

One example of continuous development is social skill building.

 

21

One example of stage-oriented, or __________, learning is experiencing a growth spurt.

 
 
 

discontinuous

 
 
 

22

The time during which a skill or ability must develop is referred to as the __________. 

 
 

critical period 

 
 

23

What are the two divisions of culture in developmental psychology? 

 

  1. collectivist
  2. indivualist 
 

24

Which type of culture promotes personal needs above the needs of the society?

 

individualist 

Western cultures are typically viewed as individualist cultures.

 

25

What do collectivist cultures emphasize?

 

the needs of society, which are placed before the needs of the individual

Many Asian cultures are considered collectivist cultures.

 

26

Stages are patterns of behavior that occur in a __________. 

 
 

fixed sequence 

 
 

27

How do the developmental stages of psychology work?

 

each stage has a unique set of cognitive structures (or sets of mental abilities) that build on the cognitive structures established in the previous stage 

 

28

What are the three realms of development?

 

  1. physical 
  2. cognitive
  3. social
 

29

When does physical development begin? 

 

at conception

 

30

What are the three phases of gestation that the zygote experiences? 

 

  1. germinal stage
  2. embryonic stage
  3. fetal stage