relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of experience
What are the three types of learning?
learning that takes place when two stimuli, one conditioned and one unconditioned, are presented together to induce the same response
For example, Pavlov rang a bell when he was going to feed his dogs. The dogs would naturally salivate when food was presented to them, but over time when Pavlov rang his bell his dogs would salivate even without the presence of food.
Define acquisition as it relates to classical conditioning.
passively learning to give a known response to a new stimulus
Define stimulus as it relates to classical conditioning.
change in the environment that brings about a response
Define response as it relates to classical conditioning.
reaction to a stimulus
Stimuli that increase the likelihood of a behavior are called __________.
When you put food in your mouth, you salivate.
What was the premise of Ivan Pavlov's classical conditioning experiment?
Dogs salivate at the sight of food because they form associations with food and events preceding eating the food. Pavlov sounded a bell right before presenting food, so the dogs would ultimately salivate at the sound of the bell.
neutral stimulus (NS)
stimulus that initially does not elicit a response until it becomes CS
The NS is the bell because it does not produce salivation until it is paired with the food.
unconditioned stimulus (UCS or US)
reflexively, automatically brings about a response
Food is the UCS because it automatically brings about salivation.
unconditioned response (UCR or UR)
automatic, involuntary reaction to the unconditioned stimulus
The UCR is salivation because the dogs automatically salivate when they eat food.
conditioned stimulus (CS)
starts as neutral stimulus, but when paired with UCS, eventually brings about the conditioned response
The CS is the bell because, when paired with the food, it brought about salivation.
conditioned response (CR)
learned response to a previously neutral stimulus
Salivation is the CR because the dog learned to salivate in response to the bell.
How is delayed conditioning timed?
neutral stimulus is presented just before the unconditioned stimulus
The bell rings just before food is presented.
How is trace conditioning timed?
neutral stimulus is presented and then taken away before the unconditioned stimulus appears
Bell rings, followed by a long time lapse, then food is presented.
How is simultaneous conditioning timed?
neutral stimulus and unconditioned stimulus are presented together at the same time
The bell rings and food is presented at the same time.
How is backward conditioning timed?
unconditioned stimulus is presented before the neutral stimulus
Food is presented before the bell rings.
What researcher(s) were behind the Little Albert experiment?
John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner
Explain the Little Albert classical conditioning experiment.
conditioned a nine-month-old baby named Albert to fear a rat
Albert wouldn't cry from the sight of the rat, but cried from loud noise
loud noise was played when Albert reached for the rat
Albert eventually cried at sight of the rat
Identify the UCS, UCR, CS, and CR in the Little Albert experiment.
UCS: loud noise
CS: white rat
elimination of the CR through presenting the CS without the UCS repeatedly
Pavlov's example: ring bell without food, dog will not salivate from bell
Little Albert: present rat without loud noise, baby will not cry from rat
original response disappears and then returns later on
Pavlov's example: salivation from bell stops and then returns
Little Albert: baby stops crying from presence of rat and then begins again
stimuli similar to the CS elicit the CR without any new conditioning
Pavlov's example: dog salivates from bells with different tones, pitches, or lengths
Little Albert: baby cries from other white fluffy stimuli, such as white bunnies or cotton balls
CR is only produced by the presence of the CS because other stimuli is too dissimilar
Pavlov's example: dog will not salivate to a doorbell or telephone ring
Little Albert: baby will not cry at presence of a black rat
What is higher-order (a.k.a. second-order) conditioning?
learning which occurs when a previously learned CS is now used as the US to produce a CR to a new stimulus
Flashing a light before Pavlov's bell would train the dogs to salivate from only the light.
learning that occurs when a subject performs certain voluntary behavior, and the consequences of the behavior determine the likelihood of its recurrence
How did Edward Thorndike contribute to research on operant conditioning?
put cats in puzzle boxes to demonstrate trial and error in obtaining a fish
coined the terms "instrumental learning" and "Law of Effect"
What is instrumental learning?
Thorndike's term for type of associative learning where a behavior becomes more or less probable depending on its consequence
Explain the Law of Effect.
behaviors followed by a positive consequence are strengthened and more likely to occur
behaviors followed by a negative consequence are weakened and less likely to occur
concluded by Edward Thorndike
What is a Skinner box?
operant conditioning chamber for research animals, designed by B.F. Skinner, that contained levers, food dispensers, lights, and an electrified grid
What are the four training procedures of B.F. Skinner's operant conditioning?
reward training where a behavior is followed by a reinforcer that increases the probability that the behavior will occur again
praise after participating in class
What is the Premack principle?
type of positive reinforcement where a more probable behavior is used as a reinforcer for a less probable one
treating yourself to an hour of TV after spending three hours studying for an exam
removing an unpleasant consequence
taking an advil to relieve a headache
Explain the two types of negative reinforcement.
avoidance behavior: takes away the aversive stimulus before it begins
escape behavior: takes away the aversive stimulus after it has already started
unpleasant consequence that follows a voluntary behavior, decreasing the probability the behavior will be repeated; a.k.a. positive punishment
spanking a child for misbehaving
removing a rewarding consequence following a voluntary behavior, decreasing the probability the behavior will be repeated
taking away a child's toy after misbehaving
What is aversive conditioning?
learning that involves an unpleasant stimulus or reinforcer, such as negative reinforcement and punishment
state of feeling powerless to change yourself or your situation because of a prior inability to avoid an aversive event
What are the three types of reinforcers?
something that is biologically, naturally important and therefore rewarding
food and drink
something neutral that can become rewarding when associated with a primary reinforcer
gold stars, tokens, points, money
secondary reinforcer that can be associated with several primary reinforcers
money can be used to buy food and also other enjoyable items.
How does a token economy work?
operant conditioning system
secondary reinforcers are used to increase acceptable behaviors
tokens can be exchanged for privileges and prizes
used in mental hospitals and jails
Define behavior modification in terms of operant conditioning.
small steps are rewarded until the intended goal is achieved
uses the behavioral approach to solve individual, institutional, and societal problems
How is shaping used to teach a new behavior?
positively reinforcing closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
In toilet training, rewards are given to the child at each step.
Define chaining as it relates to operant conditioning.
initially positively reinforcing each behavior in a certain order
later on, rewards only given for completing the whole sequence
in order to establish a specific sequence of behaviors
What is the purpose of reinforcement schedules?
to determine how and when reinforcers will be given to the learner
What is a continuous reinforcement schedule?
provides reinforcement every time the behavior is exhibited by human or animal
What is a partial reinforcement schedule?
reinforcing behavior only some of the time
a.k.a. intermittent schedule
What is a Partial Reinforcement Schedules schedule and what are the four types?
schedule based on the number of desired responses
- fixed ratio
- fixed interval
- variable ratio
- variable interval
fixed ratio schedule
reinforcement comes after a specific number of behavior responses
Every three times you get a question right, you get a piece of candy.
fixed interval schedule
reinforcement comes at a specific time
You know you have a quiz tomorrow, so you don't study until the night before.
variable ratio schedule
number of behavior responses needed for reinforcement changes
You sit at a slot machine pulling the lever hundreds of time because you don't know how many pulls are needed before the jackpot.
variable interval schedule
amount of time before reinforcement of behavior changes
You study every night in preparation for a pop quiz because you don't know when it is coming.
How is superstitious behavior formed?
When reinforcement occurs during an idiosyncratic behavior, the organism is likely to repeat that behavior, even though it doesn't cause the reinforcement.
What did John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner study?
studied only behaviors, disregarded thought processes because they were not observable
What do cognitive theorists believe humans and other animals are capable of, beyond classical and operant conditioning?
forming expectations and being consciously motivated by rewards
What is the contingency model?
Richard Rescorla's theory that the key to classical conditioning is how well the CS predicts the appearance of the UCS
What model did the contingency model counter?
Pavlov's contiguity model that classical conditioning is based on the association in time of the CS prior to the UCS
What is the blocking effect?
Leon Kamin's concept that conditioning effect of neutral stimulus is blocked when already conditioned with UCS. In other words, once CS and UCS are paired, a second CS will not result in the same CR that the UCS received. The second CS is blocked because an association already exists between the first CS and the UCS.
Name an example of delayed gratification.
saving money for college or a car, rather than spending it immediately
Who was Edward Tolman?
confirmed the presence of latent learning
found unrewarded rats form cognitive map of the maze so when presented with a reward, they are motivated to improve
learning in the absence of rewards
Define insight as it relates to learning.
sudden appearance of an answer or solution to a problem
Who observed insight in chimpanzees?
learning that occurs by watching the behavior of a model
a.k.a. social learning or vicarious learning
What are the four steps of observational learning, according to Albert Bandura?
What were the results of the bobo dolls experiment?
when offered rewards to imitate violent behavior, did not always lead to response
demonstrated modeling: those who watched violent models imitated them
What provides the biological basis for observational learning?
Mirror neurons are activated when you perform an action and when you observe someone else perform a similar action.
conditioned taste aversion
intense dislike and avoidance of a food because of its association with an unpleasant or painful stimulus through backward conditioning
adaptive responses of organisms to foods that could sicken or kill them
a.k.a. Garcia effect
Define preparedness as it relates to learning.
Through evolution, animals are biologically predisposed to easily learn behaviors related to their survival as a species.
Who experimented on conditioned taste aversions and biological preparedness in rats?
John Garcia and Robert Koelling
What is instinctive drift?
CR that drifts back toward the natural, instinctive behavior of the organism
What is the evidence of biological factors of learning?
Rats raised in enriched environments had thicker cortices, higher brain weight, and greater neural connectivity than rats raised in deprived environments.
What is long-term potentiation?