relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of experience
What are the three types of learning?
learning that takes place when two stimuli, one conditioned and one unconditioned, are presented together to induce the same response
For example, Pavlov rang a bell when he was going to feed his dogs. The dogs would naturally salivate when food was presented to them, but over time when Pavlov rang his bell his dogs would salivate even without the presence of food.
Define acquisition as it relates to classical conditioning.
passively learning to give a known response to a new stimulus
Define stimulus as it relates to classical conditioning.
change in the environment that brings about a response
Define response as it relates to classical conditioning.
reaction to a stimulus
Stimuli that increase the likelihood of a behavior are called __________.
When you put food in your mouth, you salivate.
What was the premise of Ivan Pavlov's classical conditioning experiment?
Dogs salivate at the sight of food because they form associations with food and events preceding eating the food. Pavlov sounded a bell right before presenting food, so the dogs would ultimately salivate at the sound of the bell.
neutral stimulus (NS)
stimulus that initially does not elicit a response until it becomes CS
The NS is the bell because it does not produce salivation until it is paired with the food.
unconditioned stimulus (UCS or US)
reflexively, automatically brings about a response
Food is the UCS because it automatically brings about salivation.
unconditioned response (UCR or UR)
automatic, involuntary reaction to the unconditioned stimulus
The UCR is salivation because the dogs automatically salivate when they eat food.
conditioned stimulus (CS)
starts as neutral stimulus, but when paired with UCS, eventually brings about the conditioned response
The CS is the bell because, when paired with the food, it brought about salivation.
conditioned response (CR)
learned response to a previously neutral stimulus
Salivation is the CR because the dog learned to salivate in response to the bell.
How is delayed conditioning timed?
neutral stimulus is presented just before the unconditioned stimulus
The bell rings just before food is presented.
How is trace conditioning timed?
neutral stimulus is presented and then taken away before the unconditioned stimulus appears
Bell rings, followed by a long time lapse, then food is presented.
How is simultaneous conditioning timed?
neutral stimulus and unconditioned stimulus are presented together at the same time
The bell rings and food is presented at the same time.
How is backward conditioning timed?
unconditioned stimulus is presented before the neutral stimulus
Food is presented before the bell rings.
What researcher(s) were behind the Little Albert experiment?
John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner
Explain the Little Albert classical conditioning experiment.
conditioned a nine-month-old baby named Albert to fear a rat
Albert wouldn't cry from the sight of the rat, but cried from loud noise
loud noise was played when Albert reached for the rat
Albert eventually cried at sight of the rat
Identify the UCS, UCR, CS, and CR in the Little Albert experiment.
UCS: loud noise
CS: white rat
elimination of the CR through presenting the CS without the UCS repeatedly
Pavlov's example: ring bell without food, dog will not salivate from bell
Little Albert: present rat without loud noise, baby will not cry from rat
original response disappears and then returns later on
Pavlov's example: salivation from bell stops and then returns
Little Albert: baby stops crying from presence of rat and then begins again
stimuli similar to the CS elicit the CR without any new conditioning
Pavlov's example: dog salivates from bells with different tones, pitches, or lengths
Little Albert: baby cries from other white fluffy stimuli, such as white bunnies or cotton balls
CR is only produced by the presence of the CS because other stimuli is too dissimilar
Pavlov's example: dog will not salivate to a doorbell or telephone ring
Little Albert: baby will not cry at presence of a black rat
What is higher-order (a.k.a. second-order) conditioning?
learning which occurs when a previously learned CS is now used as the US to produce a CR to a new stimulus
Flashing a light before Pavlov's bell would train the dogs to salivate from only the light.
learning that occurs when a subject performs certain voluntary behavior, and the consequences of the behavior determine the likelihood of its recurrence
How did Edward Thorndike contribute to research on operant conditioning?
put cats in puzzle boxes to demonstrate trial and error in obtaining a fish
coined the terms "instrumental learning" and "Law of Effect"
What is instrumental learning?
Thorndike's term for type of associative learning where a behavior becomes more or less probable depending on its consequence
Explain the Law of Effect.