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Flashcards in Testing and Individual Differences Deck (75)
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1

What is the purpose of a test?

Tests are used to make decisions.

2

What do psychometricians do?

  • measurement psychologists
  • analyze psychological data
  • test development
  • measure mental traits and processes

3
Define:

constructs

theoretical ideas about a group of events related to behavior

Examples:

intelligence, happiness, honesty

4

Define norms as it relates to testing.

standards used to compare the scores between test takers

5

List three traits of a good test.

  1. standardized
  2. reliable
  3. valid

6

Define standardization as it relates to testing.

Two-part test development process:

  1. establishes test norms from test results of large sample
  2. ensures test is administered and scored uniformly for everyone

7

Define reliability as it relates to testing.

consistency of results over time

8

What are the four types of reliability?

  1. test-retest
  2. split-half
  3. equivalent (or alternate) form
  4. interrater

9
Define:

test-retest reliability

  • scores are consistent on a given test when the same participants are tested on two separate occasions
  • problematic because of familiarity with test questions

Example:

If you take your French test once on Monday and again on Friday, your scores should be similar.

10
Define:

split-half reliability

consistency between scores on one half of the test and scores on the other half of the test

Example:

The scores on even-numbered questions should correlate with the scores on odd-numbered questions.

11
Define:

equivalent form reliability

  • two tests with different questions about the same material given to the same participants produce consistent scores
  • a.k.a. alternative form reliability

Example:

Your score on the September SAT should be consistent with your score on the October SAT.

12
Define:

interrater reliability

consistency in scores given by different graders 

Example:

If you pass your road test with one instructor, you should pass the test with any instructor.

13

Define validity as it relates to testing.

extent to which a test accurately measures what it is supposed to

14

What are the four types of validity?

  1. face
  2. content
  3. construct
  4. criterion-related
  • predictive

15
Define:

face validity

content of the test reflects the material it is supposed to, according to the test takers

Example:

The AP Psych exam should reflect the material provided in the test outline.

16
Define:

content validity

content of the test reflects a wide range of the material it is supposed to, not just a small portion

Example:

Research on depression should examine the biological, behavioral, and cognitive aspects.

17
Define:

criterion-related validity

test scores correlate with other measures of the same material

Example:

Scores on the written driving test should correlate with scores on the road test.

18
Define:

predictive validity

test scores accurately predict a future result

Example:

High SAT scores should predict high grades in college.

19
Define:

construct validity

operational defintion of the tested variable agrees with its theoretical construct

Example:

The score on an IQ test should reflect one's intelligence.

20

If a test is __________, someone will earn the same score no matter who scores it.

standardized

21

If a test is __________, someone will earn the same score no matter where, when, or how many times they take the test.

reliable

22

An algebra exam that contains questions about geography lacks __________.

validity

23

What is the difference between projective tests and inventory tests?

Projective tests, including the Rorschach Inkblot or TAT, allow for interpretation of ambiguous stimuli, while inventory-type tests require answers to standardized questions.

24
Define and give an example of:

performance test

  • test taker knows how to respond to questions and tries to succeed
  • can be speed test or power test

Examples:

IQ tests, SATs, AP exams, road test, classroom tests

25

What is the difference between a speed test and a power test?

A speed test presents a large number of easy questions in a limited time frame, while a power test presents a varying level of questions and allots more time.

26
Define and give an example of:

observational test

test taker is assessed on specific behavior or performance

Example:

job interview

27
Define and give an example of:

self-report test

test taker describes his or her own beliefs, attitudes, feelings, or physical state

Example:

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) and other personality tests

28
Define and give an example of:

ability test

  • examines performance on cognitively demanding tasks, including scholastic performance
  • includes aptitude and achievement tests

Examples:

SATs and AP exams

29

What is the difference between an aptitude test and an achievement test?

  • An aptitude test, such as the SAT, predicts a person's future performance or his/her capacity to learn
  • An achievement test, such as the AP Psych exam, assesses what a person has already learned

30
Define and give an example of:

interest test

uses a person's likes and dislikes to predict future life satisfaction

Example:

Strong-Cambell Interest Inventory and other career tests