What is the purpose of a test?
Tests are used to make decisions.
What do psychometricians do?
analyze psychological data
measure mental traits and processes
theoretical ideas about a group of events related to behavior
intelligence, happiness, honesty
Define norms as it relates to testing.
standards used to compare the scores between test takers
List three traits of a good test.
Define standardization as it relates to testing.
Two-part test development process:
- establishes test norms from test results of large sample
- ensures test is administered and scored uniformly for everyone
Define reliability as it relates to testing.
consistency of results over time
What are the four types of reliability?
equivalent (or alternate) form
scores are consistent on a given test when the same participants are tested on two separate occasions
problematic because of familiarity with test questions
If you take your French test once on Monday and again on Friday, your scores should be similar.
consistency between scores on one half of the test and scores on the other half of the test
The scores on even-numbered questions should correlate with the scores on odd-numbered questions.
equivalent form reliability
two tests with different questions about the same material given to the same participants produce consistent scores
a.k.a. alternative form reliability
Your score on the September SAT should be consistent with your score on the October SAT.
consistency in scores given by different graders
If you pass your road test with one instructor, you should pass the test with any instructor.
Define validity as it relates to testing.
extent to which a test accurately measures what it is supposed to
What are the four types of validity?
content of the test reflects the material it is supposed to, according to the test takers
The AP Psych exam should reflect the material provided in the test outline.
content of the test reflects a wide range of the material it is supposed to, not just a small portion
Research on depression should examine the biological, behavioral, and cognitive aspects.
test scores correlate with other measures of the same material
Scores on the written driving test should correlate with scores on the road test.
test scores accurately predict a future result
High SAT scores should predict high grades in college.
operational defintion of the tested variable agrees with its theoretical construct
The score on an IQ test should reflect one's intelligence.
If a test is __________, someone will earn the same score no matter who scores it.
If a test is __________, someone will earn the same score no matter where, when, or how many times they take the test.
An algebra exam that contains questions about geography lacks __________.
What is the difference between projective tests and inventory tests?
Projective tests, including the Rorschach Inkblot or TAT, allow for interpretation of ambiguous stimuli, while inventory-type tests require answers to standardized questions.
test taker knows how to respond to questions and tries to succeed
can be speed test or power test
IQ tests, SATs, AP exams, road test, classroom tests
What is the difference between a speed test and a power test?
A speed test presents a large number of easy questions in a limited time frame, while a power test presents a varying level of questions and allots more time.
test taker is assessed on specific behavior or performance
test taker describes his or her own beliefs, attitudes, feelings, or physical state
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) and other personality tests
examines performance on cognitively demanding tasks, including scholastic performance
includes aptitude and achievement tests
SATs and AP exams
What is the difference between an aptitude test and an achievement test?
An aptitude test, such as the SAT, predicts a person's future performance or his/her capacity to learn
An achievement test, such as the AP Psych exam, assesses what a person has already learned
uses a person's likes and dislikes to predict future life satisfaction
Strong-Cambell Interest Inventory and other career tests