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PSYCHOLOGY: Learning > Adaptive Plasicity > Flashcards

Flashcards in Adaptive Plasicity Deck (16):
1

Define: adaptive plasticity

changes in the brain’s neural structure to enable adjustment to experience, to compensate for lost function and/or to maximise functions in the event of brain damage.

2

What is the effectiveness of the brain's responseto injury influenced by?

o The location of injury
o Extent of damage
o Age (highest in infancy and childhood)

3

How are new neurons continually developed over the lifespan

There are stem cells in some parts of the brain which makes them.

4

How does the brain compensate for lost function due to DAMAGE?

it reorganises its strucutre - in which entirely new synapses form, so the functions are reassigned from a damaged area to an undamaged area.

5

Define:reorganisation

a shift in connections that might alter the function of a particular area.

6

Can reorganisation occur immediately or over time?

Yes

7

Can reorganisation have multiple processes, ranging from the neuronal level to brain tissue level?

Yes

8

if an injury destroys the part of the hemisphere in which a function is primarily located, can its function can be taken over by the opposite cerebral hemisphere?

Yes

9

What are the 2 neuronal processes in adaptive plasticity?

Rerouting and sprouting

10

Define: rerouting

undamaged neuron that has lost a connection with an active neurons seeks a connection with a new active neuron.

11

Define: sprouting

new dendrites grow on post-synaptic neurons, and new sprouts (filigree appendages) grow from the axon terminals of the pre-synaptic neuron towards the dendrites of the post-synaptic neuron.

12

Can sprouting occur in both damaged and undamaged areas?

Yes

13

What causes rerouting and sprouting to occur?

Stimulation of neurons that need to be recovered. This can be done through relearning tasks, eg. walking and talking

14

Monkey example of adaptive plasticity?

• When somatosensory cortices of monkeys were removed, the adjacent areas of the parietal lobe “took over” (or were reassigned) the function of sensory perception, which restored this function.

15

Due to changing environmental input: what happens when an area of the brain is continually used?

More sprouting occurs and the brain area increases in size.

16

Can functions be reassigned to other areas of the brain if it gets an extraordinary/no environmental stimulation?

Yes