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Flashcards in Observational learning PROCESSES Deck (18):

What are the 5 key processes of observational learning?

Attention, retention, reproduction, motivation, reinforcement


Define: attention

the observer must actively watch the model’s behaviour and consequences.


What can attention be influenced by?

The perceptual abilities and motivation of the observer
Situation in which the behaviour is observed (eg. distractions)
The distinctiveness/importance of the behaviour


What might make us pay closer attention to a behaviour?

The model is perceived positively (attrative and high status)
Similarities between us and the model
Model is familiar
Model’s behaviour is clearly visible and stands out against other models
We believe we can imitate the behaviour


Define: retention

the observer must remember the behaviour – we must store the mental representation of the behaviour.


How can retention of a behaviour be enhanced?

By making it meaningful (eg. pairing a visualisation of the behaviour with a verbal description)


Why is retention important?

Because often we don't use the behaviour until a while after acquisition.


Define: reproduction

after attending to and remembering a behaviour, the observer can attempt to imitate it – but we must be physically and cognitively capable of doing so.


Does the person have to be capable of imitating, or of developing the skills allowing them to imitate, the behaviour?



Define: motivation

the observer must want to imitate the behaviour.


How is motivation influenced by reinforcement?

Motivation to imitate the behaviour depends on the type of consequence (reinforcement=more motivated, punishment=less motivated)


Define: reinforcement

if there is a prospect of a positive result or reinforcement for imitating the behaviour, the likelihood of it being imitated is increased.


When the there is a prospect of reinforcement for imitating the behaviour, they are...
When there is a prospect of punishment, they are...

MOre likely to imitate the behaviour
Less likely to imitate the behaviour


Define: self-efficacy

our belief in our ability to succeed in particular situation (influenced by self confidence and self esteem).


THe lower a person's self-efficacy, the...

More likely they are to imitate a models\'s behaviour


3 types of reinforcement?

External reinforcement (same as op con), vicarious reinforcement and self-reinforcement


define: self-reinfrocement

occurs when we are reinforced by meeting the standards of performance we set for ourselves


An example of positive and negative self-reinforcement?

Positive reinforcement: sense of pride/achievement/fulfilment
Negative reinforcement: eg. achieving academic success to avoid a future of being bored in a mindless profession