Operant Conditioning: introduction Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Operant Conditioning: introduction Deck (19):
1

Define: operant conditioning

A type of learning based on the law of effect, in which an organism will tend to repeat a behaviour (operant) that has desirable consequences or allows it to avoid undesirable consequences, and tends not to repeat behaviours with undesirable consequences.

2

What is operant conditioning also known as?

Instrumental conditioning

3

Define: operant

any voluntary response (or set of responses) that acts on the environment to produce a consequence.

4

Define: three-phase model of operant conditioning

describes the relationship between the discriminative stimulus, the response and the consequence.

5

Define: discriminative stimulus:

the object or event (stimulus) that always precedes a particular response that signals the probable consequences for that response, therefore influencing the occurrence of that response.

6

What is the discriminative stimulus also known as?

: the object or event (stimulus) preceding a particular response that signals the probable consequences for that response, therefore influencing the occurrence of that response.

7

What is the discriminative stimulus also known as?

stimulus/antecedent stimulus/antecedent condition

8

Does the discriminative stimulus have to be present for the response to occur?

Yes

9

The discriminative stimulus help predict the consequences of the response. Explain.

ASK

10

Define: response

the voluntary behaviour occurring in the presence of the discriminative stimulus.

11

other names for response?

operant response/behaviour

12

Can a response involve a single pattern OR a pattern of actions?

YEs

13

Define: consequences

the environmental event occurring immediately after the response and determines whether the response will reoccur.

14

Explain how the strength and frequency of a behaviour is determined by the nature of the consequence (positive/negative consequence)

Positive consequence: behaviour will be strengthened and more likely to occur
Negative consequence: behaviour will be weakened and less likely to occur

15

Can the nature of consequence vary between individuals? HOw?

YEs; eg. if actually bungy jumping is the response, then some may see it as a reward (feelings of thrill) and others may see it as a consequence (feelings of terror)

16

How does the environment determine whether the operant will occur?

operant acts on the environment, and in turn the environment provides a consequence. Because the consequences change the likelihood of the response occurring and are provided by the environment, the particular environment determines whether the operant will occur.

17

Is the operant voluntary?

Yes, because no stimulus (as in UCS or CS) is required for it to occur.

18

Explain how the environment determines whether the operant will occur - in terms of the stimulus and consequences

Stimulus: provided by environment, and is needed for response to occur
Consequences: produced by environment - the nature of them determines whether they will reoccur.

19

What is meant when "a person can operate on their environment to produce a particular response"?

Different environments may have different stimuli and consequences; if a person learns a response in a particular environment produces desirable consequences they're more likely to do it