Flashcards in Classical Conditioning Deck (31):
Classical conditioning is also known as
Define: classical conditioning
a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus (NS which becomes CS) is repeatedly associated with another stimulus (UCS) which produces an automatic response (UCR), until the previously neutral stimulus produces an identical response to this (CR).
any object or event that produces a particular naturally occurring response in an organism.
a reaction by an organism to the stimulus – either a reflex action or an emotional response.
What are the 4 key elements of classical conditioning?
Conditioned stimulus (neutral stimulus)
Define: unconditioned stimulus
any stimulus which consistently produces a particular naturally occurring emotional response or reflex.
Define: unconditioned reflex
a response that occurs automatically and predictably when the UCS is presented.
Define: conditioned stimulus
the stimulus which is neutral at the beginning of the condition and does not normally produce an UCR, but after repeated association iwht the UCS it produces a response identical to the UCR.
Define: neutral stimulus
a stimulus before it becomes conditioned which produces no relevant response.
linking a stimulus that does not usually produce a particular response (CS) to a stimulus that does (UCS).
Define: conditioned response
the learned response which is identical to that of the UCR but is caused by the UCS alone after conditioning.
What are the five key processes of classical conditioning?
Define: stimulus generalisation
the tendency for another stimulus which is similar to the CS to produce a SIMILAR response as the CR.
What is the strength of the conditioned response in stimulus generalisation?
It has some strength but it is not as strong as the original conditioned response. (eg. pav's dogs would salivate at the sound of a doorbell but less than at the bell)
What factor affects stimulus generalisation?
The amount of similarity between stimuli - the greater the similarity, the more likely the generalisaiton
Define: stimulus discrimination
Occurs when a person or animal responds to the CS only, and not the similar stimuli.
the overall process in which a response is conditioned through the association of the CS and UCS
Define: trial (occurs in acquisition)
each paired presentation of the CS and the UCS, which occurs close together and in the same sequence.
When is the rate of acquisition the fastest?
at the beginning stages of acquisition
How is the duration of the acquisition stage measured?
How long it takes for the repsonse to be acquired (eg. CS to produce CR alone).
HOw is acquisition shown?
Anticipatory behaviour: we produce a CR because we expect the UCS to be presented after the CS.
Factors affecting acquisition?
Timing between presentation of CS and the UCS: the quicker, the more effective the acquisition process (optimal time is 0.5 seconds).
When the CS remains until the UCS is presented, the acquisition process is quicker.
when the UCS is no longer presented, there is a gradual decrease in the strength/rate of a CR.
In extinction, can the CR fade over time or completely disappear
Factors affecting extinction?
Variation between individuals (both humans and animals)
The type of behaviour: If a CR is simple (reflex) then it will be extinguished relatively quickly; If the CR is complex (phobia) then it will take longer to be extinguished.
Define: spontaneous recovery
following a rest period, the CR reappears when the CS is presented - after extinction occurs.
Define: rest period
When no CS is presented.
Does spontaneous recovery always occur?
When spontaneous recovery does occur, is the CR weaker than in acquisition?
What happens to spontaneous recovery when extinction is repeated multiple times?
The CR will disappear and the spontaneous recovery will no longer occur.