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Flashcards in Classical Conditioning Deck (31):
1

Classical conditioning is also known as

respondant conditioning.

2

Define: classical conditioning

a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus (NS which becomes CS) is repeatedly associated with another stimulus (UCS) which produces an automatic response (UCR), until the previously neutral stimulus produces an identical response to this (CR).

3

Define: stimulus

any object or event that produces a particular naturally occurring response in an organism.

4

Define: response

a reaction by an organism to the stimulus – either a reflex action or an emotional response.

5

What are the 4 key elements of classical conditioning?

Unconditioned stimulus
Unconditioned reflex
Conditioned stimulus (neutral stimulus)
Conditioned reflex

6

Define: unconditioned stimulus

any stimulus which consistently produces a particular naturally occurring emotional response or reflex.

7

Define: unconditioned reflex

a response that occurs automatically and predictably when the UCS is presented.

8

Define: conditioned stimulus

the stimulus which is neutral at the beginning of the condition and does not normally produce an UCR, but after repeated association iwht the UCS it produces a response identical to the UCR.

9

Define: neutral stimulus

a stimulus before it becomes conditioned which produces no relevant response.

10

Define: assoication

linking a stimulus that does not usually produce a particular response (CS) to a stimulus that does (UCS).

11

Define: conditioned response

the learned response which is identical to that of the UCR but is caused by the UCS alone after conditioning.

12

What are the five key processes of classical conditioning?

Acquisition
Extinction
Spontaneous Recovery
Stimulus generalisation
Stimulus discrimination

13

Define: stimulus generalisation

the tendency for another stimulus which is similar to the CS to produce a SIMILAR response as the CR.

14

What is the strength of the conditioned response in stimulus generalisation?

It has some strength but it is not as strong as the original conditioned response. (eg. pav's dogs would salivate at the sound of a doorbell but less than at the bell)

15

What factor affects stimulus generalisation?

The amount of similarity between stimuli - the greater the similarity, the more likely the generalisaiton

16

Define: stimulus discrimination

Occurs when a person or animal responds to the CS only, and not the similar stimuli.

17

Define: acquisition

the overall process in which a response is conditioned through the association of the CS and UCS

18

Define: trial (occurs in acquisition)

each paired presentation of the CS and the UCS, which occurs close together and in the same sequence.

19

When is the rate of acquisition the fastest?

at the beginning stages of acquisition

20

How is the duration of the acquisition stage measured?

How long it takes for the repsonse to be acquired (eg. CS to produce CR alone).

21

HOw is acquisition shown?

Anticipatory behaviour: we produce a CR because we expect the UCS to be presented after the CS.

22

Factors affecting acquisition?

Timing between presentation of CS and the UCS: the quicker, the more effective the acquisition process (optimal time is 0.5 seconds).
When the CS remains until the UCS is presented, the acquisition process is quicker.

23

Define: extinction

when the UCS is no longer presented, there is a gradual decrease in the strength/rate of a CR.

24

In extinction, can the CR fade over time or completely disappear

Yes

25

Factors affecting extinction?

Variation between individuals (both humans and animals)
The type of behaviour: If a CR is simple (reflex) then it will be extinguished relatively quickly; If the CR is complex (phobia) then it will take longer to be extinguished.

26

Define: spontaneous recovery

following a rest period, the CR reappears when the CS is presented - after extinction occurs.

27

Define: rest period

When no CS is presented.

28

Does spontaneous recovery always occur?

No

29

When spontaneous recovery does occur, is the CR weaker than in acquisition?

Yes

30

What happens to spontaneous recovery when extinction is repeated multiple times?

The CR will disappear and the spontaneous recovery will no longer occur.

31

is the CS always shown before the UCS

YES