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PSYCHOLOGY: Learning > Sensitive periods > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sensitive periods Deck (14):
1

Define: sensitive period

a time period in development when an organism is more responsive to certain environmental stimuli or experiences.

2

Sensitive periods are the optimal time for learning; learning can still occur outside of a sensitive period but it may:

Take longer
Be more difficult
Be less successful

3

How do sensitive periods relate to developmental plasticity?

Synapses and neural pathways are most easily formed.

4

Describe the sensitive period for oral native/first language acquisition.

Sensitive period is up to 12, but declines at 7.
From birth, we can tell apart differences in sounds in all languages; from age 1, we are more sensitive to differences in sounds in our own lages.

5

Describe the sensitive period for second language acquisition.

Will speak like a native if learnt at 5-6
If learnt in early adolescence, a 2nd Broca's area can form next to the original.

6

Other examples of sensitive periods?

Auditory stimulation and coordination of movement

7

Two types of learning involved in sensitive periods?

Experience-expectant learning and experience-dependent learning

8

Define: experience-dependent leraning

occurs when learning requires exposure to an experience, which occurs at any time during the lifespan – ie. adaptive plasticity.

9

Examples of exp-dependent learning?

reading, writing, singing, seeing colour

10

Is exp-dependent learning unique to each individual?

Yes

11

Define: experience-expectant learning

occurs when the brain encounters the experience that is expected, ideally in a sensitive period

12

Ix exp-exp learning unique to each individual?

No; it is species wie.

13

WHen does exp-exp learning usually occur?

During infancy/early childhood

14

Why is experience necessary for the development of the brain in exp-exp learning?

Because the experiences are what cause the neural pathways to form; without them, brain development might not occur as it should.