Flashcards in Sensitive periods Deck (14):
Define: sensitive period
a time period in development when an organism is more responsive to certain environmental stimuli or experiences.
Sensitive periods are the optimal time for learning; learning can still occur outside of a sensitive period but it may:
Be more difficult
Be less successful
How do sensitive periods relate to developmental plasticity?
Synapses and neural pathways are most easily formed.
Describe the sensitive period for oral native/first language acquisition.
Sensitive period is up to 12, but declines at 7.
From birth, we can tell apart differences in sounds in all languages; from age 1, we are more sensitive to differences in sounds in our own lages.
Describe the sensitive period for second language acquisition.
Will speak like a native if learnt at 5-6
If learnt in early adolescence, a 2nd Broca's area can form next to the original.
Other examples of sensitive periods?
Auditory stimulation and coordination of movement
Two types of learning involved in sensitive periods?
Experience-expectant learning and experience-dependent learning
Define: experience-dependent leraning
occurs when learning requires exposure to an experience, which occurs at any time during the lifespan – ie. adaptive plasticity.
Examples of exp-dependent learning?
reading, writing, singing, seeing colour
Is exp-dependent learning unique to each individual?
Define: experience-expectant learning
occurs when the brain encounters the experience that is expected, ideally in a sensitive period
Ix exp-exp learning unique to each individual?
No; it is species wie.
WHen does exp-exp learning usually occur?
During infancy/early childhood