Addiction Model of Self-Regulation Failure Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Addiction Model of Self-Regulation Failure Deck (23)
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1

Stigma

problem of moral control
has a biological origin

2

Cost and scope of addiction

how much it harms our society
major negative impact
medical problems
drug crime

3

Substance Dependence

-physical
-Modern short
definition of addiction (Koob version)- chronically relapsing disorder
that is characterized by a compulsion to seek and take drug or stimulus,
loss of control in limiting intake, and emergence of a negative emotional
state when access to the drug or stimulus is prevented.
-addiction

4

dependence

-psychological
-The manifestation of a withdrawal syndrome; you can have abstinence
syndrome without addiction
-drug produces ‘a feeling of
satisfaction and a psychic drive that require periodic
or continuous administration of the drug to produce
pleasure or to avoid discomfort’

5

Drug Abuse vs Drug Dependence

Usually drugs are abused first, and dependence comes later

6

drug abuse

ICD-Harmful Use- A pattern of use that is damaging to overall health
DSM- Drug Abuse-Maladaptive pattern of substance use with significant adverse consequences related to repeated use

7

DSM Dependence

**Three or more symptoms occurring during the last
year**
1. Tolerance
2. Withdrawal
3. The substance is often taken in large amounts or
over a longer period than was intended
4. Any unsuccessful effort or a persistent desire to cut
down or control substance use
5. A great deal of time is spent in activities necessary
to obtain the substance or recover from its effects
DSM-IV
6. Important social, occupational, or recreational
activities given up or reduced because of substance
use
7. Continued substance use despite knowledge of
having had a persistent or recurrent physical or
psychological problem that is likely to be caused or
exacerbated by the substance

8

Reinforcement

Process by which an event increases the
probability of a given response

9

Positive reinforcement

PRESENTATION of an event
increases the probability of a response/behavior

10

Negative reinforcement

TERMINATION of an event
increases the probability of a response/behavior

11

Determinants of Drug Reinforcement Efficacy

1. Route of Administration
-Oral, Inhaled, Intravenous
2. Dose
3. Schedule of Reinforcement
4. History of the Organism
-sensitization
-tolerance

12

Sensitization

drug effects are enhanced with repeated drug use (i.e., punding/stereotypy
behaviors, paranoia)

13

Tolerance

drug may have reduced effects due to tolerance with repeated drug use (i.e.,
high is not achieved with same amount, BALs are lower due to metabolic tolerance)

14

Conditioned Reinforcement

Positive
1. resistance to extinction
2. blockade of withdrawal
3. relapse

Negative
1. conditioned withdrawl
2. motivational state
3. relapse

15

Conditioned Positive Reinforcement

Drug Cues are part of the drug taking ritual … “triggers”:
Paraphernalia - syringes, needles, pipes, matches
People - dealers, friends
Music - certain songs or words in songs
Places - bars, clubs, sports events

16

Conditioned Negative Reinforcement

(1) Conditioned Withdrawal
-Drug cues can elicit withdrawal signs (when at the subway stop
where they obtained opioids, former opioid dependent
individuals began to sweat and feel withdrawal)
(2) Motivated State
-The cues remind them that drug taking alleviates painful or
aversive events
(3) Relapse
-The negative feelings that the cues bring on can lead to drugseeking

17

Impulsive Stage

Binge intoxication--> Pleasurable effects--> Abstinence/Neutral effect--> Reward craving

18

Compulsive Stage

Prolonged intoxication--> Relief--> Protracted abstinence/Negative effect-->Relief craving

19

Impulse Control Disorders

tension/arousal--> impulsive acts--> pleasure/relief/gratification--> regret/guilt/self-reproach

20

Compulsive Disorders

anxiety/stress--> repetitive behaviors--> relief of anxiety/stress-->obsessions

21

Preoccupation/Anticipation

A lot of time is spent procuring drugs
Continued use despite negative consequences

22

Binge/Intoxication

Take more than intended
Decreased social and occupational functioning

23

Withdrawl/Negative Affect

Tolerance
Withdrawl