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Flashcards in Compulsive Eating Deck (25)
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non-compulsive eating/non-impulsive eating

-most often feeling control over eating habits
-eating when you are hungry and stopping when you are satisfied
-this involves being able to distinguish:
•physical hunger for emotional hunger
•satiety for over-fullness
•intrinsic/personal factors from extrinsic/social factors


compulsive eating

- negative reinforcement
-repetitive behaviors that are performed according to certain rules or in stereotypical fashion
-attempt to alleviate anxiety or discomfort


impulsive eating

-positive reinforcement
-rapid, unplanned reactions to internal or external stimuli without regard to the negative consequences of these actions


compulsive eating and impulsive eating

-excessive grazing


excessive grazing

-eating the three main meals of the day and grazing on the side
-used as self-medication
-really repetitive
-don't realize how much you are eating


binge eating

eating, in a discrete period of time (2-hours) an amount of food that is definitely larger than most people would eat in a similar period of time under similar circumstances
-a sense of loss of control over eating during the episode


characteristics of a binge

-usually in secrecy
-rapid consumption
-continues until painfully full
-can be triggered by emotion
-feels out of control
-temporary increase in mood/numbing out
-followed by depressed mood
-usually high calorie foods


Bulimia nervousa

-recurrent episodes of binge eating

-recurrent inappropriate compensatory behavior in order to prevent weight gain
•self-induced vomiting; misuse of laxatives, diuretics, enemas, or other medications; fasting; or excessive exercise

-these behaviors both occur, on average, at least once a week for three months

-self-evaluation is unduly influenced by body shape and weight


Binge eating disorder

-recurrent episode of binge eating
-marked distress regarding binge eating
-the binge eating occurs at least once a week for 3 months
-no associated with the regular use of inappropriate compensatory behaviors or purges


complications of compulsive/impulsive overeating

-high cholesterol
-high blood pressure
-gall bladder disease
-psychological distress


psychological distress

-guilt, shame and disgust
-social withdrawal

-low rates of employment
-low rates of marriage
-high rates of work disability


relationship between compulsive/impulsive eating and body weight

-weight fluctuations
-an estimated 30% of individuals in behavioral weight control programs have BED


cause of compulsive eating

•evolution selection to eat when food is available
•body's response to processed foods and fat
•sugar "addiction

-socio-cultural issues
•body image
•food bombardment
•diet craze

-interpersonal issues
•emotional eating


body's response to processed foods and fat

-reward circuitry
-passive overconsumption
-similarities between sugar and drugs


Both compulsive and impulsive eating

-self-regulation failure
-loss of control (can even be trance-like)


BED vs. Bulimia Nervous

-compensatory behaviors
-overeating between binges
-body weight


Biology and culture working against us

-Individuals with a thrifty phenotype will have "a smaller body size, a lowered metabolic rate and a reduced level of behavioral activity… adaptations to an environment that is chronically short of food" (Bateson & Martin, 1999[4]). --Those with a thrifty phenotype who actually affluent environment may be more prone to metabolic disorders, such as obesity and type II diabetes,


Compulsive Eating as an Addiction

-Tolerance- more food/binges needed for "satiety"

-Withdrawal- depressed mood, guilt, shame

-Excessive intake- binges are defined as excessive

-Loss of control- in the definition of a binge

-Narrowing of behavioral repertoire- social withdrawal; lie about and hide eating activities; steal, hoard food

-Use continues despite problems- extreme dieting attempts, obesity, disease, psychological distress


Underregulation- Standard deficits

-Conflicting standards
•Junk food vs. cultural issues of body image
•Joy of eating vs. guilt of eating
-False consensus effect


Underregulation- Monitoring failure

-Deindividuation - insensitivity to internal cues

-Renegade attention - increased sensitivity to external cues

-Transcendence failure – not thinking of long-term consequences


Underregulation- Strength failure

-Fatigue, distress, inertia all associated with binge eating


Misregulation- Inadequate or wrong knowledge

-Incorrect cues for hunger/satiety
-Childhood patterns, family influence
-Food industry influence


Misregulation-Trying to control the uncontrollable

-Genetic influence over body types
-Are “those bodies” possible??
-Are diets effective??


Spiraling distress- BN

Binge cycle and Compensation cycle-
preoccupation/anticipation--> binge/intoxication--> withdrawal/negative effect

-crossover after withdrawal/negative effect and before preoccupation/anticipation always happens


Spiraling distress- BED

Binge cycle and Dieting attempts-
preoccupation/anticipation--> binge/intoxication--> withdrawal/negative effect

-crossover after withdrawal/negative effect and before preoccupation/anticipation but not everyone does it