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Flashcards in Alcoholism Deck (34)
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1

Current use of Alcohol

at least one drink in the past 30 days

2

Binge use of Alcohol

-five or more drinks on the same occasion at least once in the past 30 days
-pattern of drinking the brings BAC to 0.08% or above
-males- 5 or more drinks in 2 hours
-females- 4 or more drinks in 2 hours

3

Heavy use of Alcohol

5 or more drinks on the same occasion on at least 5 different days in the past 30 days

4

Drink definition

-12-ounce can or bottle of beer or wine cooler
-5-ounce glass of wine
-1.5-ounces of 80 proof distilled spirits

5

Source of Comsumables Alcohol

-Ethanol is produced from fermentation of glucose and water in the presence of yeast
-high % needs more distillation through boiling and collection of stream
-Proof refers of % multiplied by 2

6

BAC

-% of alcohol in blood
-Grams of alcohol per 100 ml of blood- to convert to mg % just multiply by 1000
-Legal limit in most states is 0.08 %
-Determined by:
-Amount of alcohol consumed
-Body weight
-Body fat
-Gender (women are more sensitive to alcohol) -Based on differences in levels of enzymes that break down alcohol
-Alcohol is water soluble-More fat means less water and higher BALs
-Spacing of alcohol doses - Clearance of ~ .25 - .3 ounces pure alcohol per hour
~1/2 drink per hour; 6 hrs to be rid of 3 beers
OR 0.01g %/hour

7

Alcohol Dehydrogenase

-Breaks down alcohol--> acetaldehyde-->CO2+H2O
-Females have less

8

Acetaldehyde Dehydrogenase

-forms from disulfiram (Antabuse)
-Females have larger amount of body fat/kg

9

Behavioral Effects

Normal--> relief from anxiety--> disinhibition--> sedation--> hypnosis--> general anesthesia--> coma--> death

10

Tolerance

-Individuals drink large amounts of alcohol (12-20 drinks per day)
-Blood alcohol levels far beyond the legal limit

11

Withdrawl

-Tremor, sympathetic activation, hyperthermia
-Anxiety, dysphoria
-Delirium tremens: hallucinations, high fever

12

Substance taken in larger amounts than intended

-loss of control over intake

13

Persistent desire or unsuccessful attempt to cut down

repeated relapses to excessive drinking

14

Neglect of activities

-impairment in social, occupational, and recreational functioning

15

Time Spent

fillinf work and home with sources of alcohol so to never be without

16

Continued despite problems

-loss of job
-loss of spouse
-medical illness

17

Behavioral Toxicity

-Driving under the influence (DUI)
-Impairment in social functioning
-Impairment in occupational functioning

18

Physical Toxicity

-Cirrhosis of the liver
-Pancreatitis
-Cancers of the tongue, mouth, esophagus, stomach and liver
-Wernicke’s / Korsakoff’s syndrome
-Fetal Alcohol Spectrum

19

Positive and Negavtive Reinforcement

Positive- application of positive stimulus
Negavtive- the removal of negative stimulus
- in both cases the probability of the behavior occurring again increases

20

Expectancy

-expectancy of the positive effects of alcohol
-Unrealistic beliefs that alcohol only has positive effects
-Expectancy of alcohol consumption can lead to: Behavioral Disinhibition
-Sexual behavior
-Aggression

21

Conflicting Standards

-Standards of wanting to drink and wanting to abstain change in salience over time with regard to environmental and internal cues
-related to self-regulation failure in heavy drinkers
-to comsume or not to consume

22

False Consensus Effect

-Assuming that everyone else drinks

23

Strength

-Depletions in strength caused by exhaustion, stress, personal weakness can lead to drinking
-Underregulation

24

Controlling Emotion

-A person may assume that drinking is an effective means to regulate their affective state
-Affect regulation strategy may be self-defeating (Misregulation and Overgeneralization)
-Inability to cope with negative emotion (Misregulation)

25

Distorted Self-Knowledge

-Misplaced self-confidence that one can “handle” a large amount of alcohol
-Alcohol may serve as an important tool for increasing positive self-regard
-Alcohol may be taken to protect or enhance positive self-evaluations
-May lead ultimately to feelings of failure

26

Snowballing

-Stage where true failures of self-regulation occur
-Habitual intoxication is indisputably harmful

27

Zero-Tolerance Beliefs

-Assumes self-control has already failed following initial indulgence
-May undermine self-regulation and increase likelihood of further indulgences

28

Abstinence Violation Effect

-Many treatment programs emphasize abstinence
-"all-or-none" type of thinking

29

Psychological Inertia

-drinking becomes progressively harder to stop
-prototype for lapse-activated causal patterns

30

Reduction in Monitoring

-Alcohol reduces self-awareness
-Alcohol appears to decrease memory consolidation