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Flashcards in Adverse Drug Reactions Deck (9)
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What is an adverse drug reaction (ADR)?

any response to a drug which is noxious or unintended that occurs in doses used for prophylaxis/diagnosis/treatment


How are ADRs classified in terms of severity?

- mild (bothersome but no treatment change necessary)

- moderate (requires therapy change/additional treatment/hospitalisation)

- severe (disabling or life threatening)


How are ADRs classified in terms of onset?

- acute (within 60mins, bronchoconstriction)

- sub-acute (1-24hrs. rash and serum sickness)

- latent (>2 days, eczematous eruptions)


What is a type A ADR?

- dose related and predictable
- due to excess pharmacological action
- resolve upon reducing/stopping treatment
- primary or secondary (nothing to do with drug's therapeutic effect)


Type B?

- bizarre/unpredictable/unrelated to dose)
- unidentified for long periods
- not readily reversed
- rash/asthma/serum sickness
- common in macromolecules (proteins/vaccines)

- immunological mechanism (hypersensitivity)
- genetic mechanism (G6P dehydrogenase deficiency in RBCs)


Type C?

- chronic
- related to duration and dose (not after a single dose...)
- semi-predictable; Iatrogenic Cushing's disease


Type D?

- delayed
- after treatment in patient's children or themselves after a long period
- teratogenesis/carcinogenesis
- e.g. the effect of thalidomide on foetus)


Type E?

- end of treatment
- when a drug is stopped suddenly
- e.g. angina/Addisonian crisis (loss of adrenal function)


Type F?

- failure of treatment
- dose related (too low)
- caused by drug interactions