Flashcards in Adverse Drug Reactions Deck (9)
What is an adverse drug reaction (ADR)?
any response to a drug which is noxious or unintended that occurs in doses used for prophylaxis/diagnosis/treatment
How are ADRs classified in terms of severity?
- mild (bothersome but no treatment change necessary)
- moderate (requires therapy change/additional treatment/hospitalisation)
- severe (disabling or life threatening)
How are ADRs classified in terms of onset?
- acute (within 60mins, bronchoconstriction)
- sub-acute (1-24hrs. rash and serum sickness)
- latent (>2 days, eczematous eruptions)
What is a type A ADR?
- dose related and predictable
- due to excess pharmacological action
- resolve upon reducing/stopping treatment
- primary or secondary (nothing to do with drug's therapeutic effect)
- bizarre/unpredictable/unrelated to dose)
- unidentified for long periods
- not readily reversed
- rash/asthma/serum sickness
- common in macromolecules (proteins/vaccines)
- immunological mechanism (hypersensitivity)
- genetic mechanism (G6P dehydrogenase deficiency in RBCs)
- related to duration and dose (not after a single dose...)
- semi-predictable; Iatrogenic Cushing's disease
- after treatment in patient's children or themselves after a long period
- e.g. the effect of thalidomide on foetus)
- end of treatment
- when a drug is stopped suddenly
- e.g. angina/Addisonian crisis (loss of adrenal function)