Flashcards in Tumour Pathology Deck (55)
What is a tumour?
Abnormal growing mass of tissue
Uncoordinated with surrounding normal tissue
Growth continues after stimulus removal, meaning it is an irreversible change
What are benign tumours of the glandular epithelium/squamous epithelium called?
Malignant of glandular epithelium/squamous epithelium?
Benign of bone/fat/fibrous tissue?
Malignant of bone/fat/fibrous tissue?
What are tumours of the white blood cells/lymphoid tissue called?
Tumours of the CNS/PNS?
Tumours of the germ cells?
Ovarian teratoma (usually benign)
Testicular treatoma (usually malignant)
Give features of benign tumours
Rarely cause death
Give features of malignant tumours
Frequently cause death
Give feature of cancer cells
- altered genetics (tumour suppressor genes and oncogenes)
- altered cellular function (caused by tumour-related proteins)
- abnormal morphology
- loss of cell/cell and cell/matrix adhesion (for movement)
What are tumour related proteins?
Biomarkers whose presence predict the type of cancer present/prognosis/appropriate therapy
How is the presence of tumour biomarkers detected?
A specific cancer drug will only work when the biomarker is active in the body
Give some examples of tumour biomarkers and the cancers they can be used to predict
Kras - colorectal
EGFR - lung
Her2 - breast/gastric
Braf - melanoma
Alpha-fetoprotein - testicular/liver
What is angiogenesis?
Formation of new blood vessels to supple the tumour
Provides a mechanism for metastasis
What is metastasis?
Spreading of cancer cells following capsule degradation and transport in the blood/lymph
What is the term given to the special spread of cancer across a body cavity?
What are common sites of metastasis?
Places of high blood flow;
What are uncommon sites of metastasis?
Where do the following tumours specifically metastasise to?
What are the local effects of benign tumours?
Pressure and obstruction
What are the local effects of malignant tumours?
Tissue destruction (ulceration and infection)
Bleeding (anaemia and haemorrhage)
Pain (pressure on nerves/pathological bone fractures)
What are the systemic effects of malignant tumours?
Normal and abnormal hormone secretion
What is 'normal' hormone secretion in relation to the systemic effects of malignant tumours?
Secretion by cancer cells where it is normally expected in physiology, but at an abnormal level
What is 'abnormal' hormone secretion in relation to the systemic effects of malignant tumours?
Secretions of unexpected origin; e.g. ADH/ACTH
What is dysplasia?
a pre-malignant change (organ/tissue enlargement), the earliest change in the malignancy process that can be detected
- in epithelium
- no invasion
- can progress to cancer
Give some features of dysplasia?
Increased nuclear size
Increased mitotic activity
How is the cell cycle externally controlled?
- growth factors
How is the cell cycle intrinsically controlled?
by restriction points (R)