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Flashcards in Tumour Pathology Deck (55)
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1

What is a tumour?

Abnormal growing mass of tissue
Uncoordinated with surrounding normal tissue
Growth continues after stimulus removal, meaning it is an irreversible change

2

What are benign tumours of the glandular epithelium/squamous epithelium called?

Adenoma/Squamous papilloma

3

Malignant of glandular epithelium/squamous epithelium?

Adeno-carcinoma/Squamous carcinoma

4

Benign of bone/fat/fibrous tissue?

Osteoma/Lipoma/Fibroma

5

Malignant of bone/fat/fibrous tissue?

Osteo-sarcoma/Lipo-sarcoma/Fibro-sarcoma

6

What are tumours of the white blood cells/lymphoid tissue called?

Leukaemia/Lymphoma

7

Tumours of the CNS/PNS?

Astrocytoma/Schwannoma

8

Tumours of the germ cells?

Ovarian teratoma (usually benign)
Testicular treatoma (usually malignant)

9

Give features of benign tumours

Non-invasive growth
Well differentiated
Encapsulated
No metastases
Rarely cause death

10

Give features of malignant tumours

Invasive growth
Poorly differentiated
Not encapsulated
Metastases present
Frequently cause death

11

Give feature of cancer cells

- altered genetics (tumour suppressor genes and oncogenes)
- altered cellular function (caused by tumour-related proteins)
- abnormal morphology
- loss of cell/cell and cell/matrix adhesion (for movement)

12

What are tumour related proteins?

Biomarkers whose presence predict the type of cancer present/prognosis/appropriate therapy

13

How is the presence of tumour biomarkers detected?

A specific cancer drug will only work when the biomarker is active in the body

14

Give some examples of tumour biomarkers and the cancers they can be used to predict

Kras - colorectal
EGFR - lung
Her2 - breast/gastric
Braf - melanoma
Alpha-fetoprotein - testicular/liver

15

What is angiogenesis?

Formation of new blood vessels to supple the tumour
Provides a mechanism for metastasis

16

What is metastasis?

Spreading of cancer cells following capsule degradation and transport in the blood/lymph

17

What is the term given to the special spread of cancer across a body cavity?

Trans-coelomic spread

18

What are common sites of metastasis?

Places of high blood flow;
Liver/lungs/brain/axial skeleton

19

What are uncommon sites of metastasis?

Spleen/heart/kidney

20

Where do the following tumours specifically metastasise to?

Breast
Colorectal
Prostate

Bone
Bone
Liver

21

What are the local effects of benign tumours?

Pressure and obstruction

22

What are the local effects of malignant tumours?

Pressure
Obstruction
Tissue destruction (ulceration and infection)
Bleeding (anaemia and haemorrhage)
Pain (pressure on nerves/pathological bone fractures)

23

What are the systemic effects of malignant tumours?

Normal and abnormal hormone secretion

24

What is 'normal' hormone secretion in relation to the systemic effects of malignant tumours?

Secretion by cancer cells where it is normally expected in physiology, but at an abnormal level

25

What is 'abnormal' hormone secretion in relation to the systemic effects of malignant tumours?

Secretions of unexpected origin; e.g. ADH/ACTH

26

What is dysplasia?

a pre-malignant change (organ/tissue enlargement), the earliest change in the malignancy process that can be detected

- in epithelium
- no invasion
- can progress to cancer

27

Give some features of dysplasia?

Increased nuclear size
Increased mitotic activity
Abnormal mitoses

28

How is the cell cycle externally controlled?

by:
- hormones
- growth factors
- cytokines
- stroma

29

How is the cell cycle intrinsically controlled?

by restriction points (R)

30

When does external control of the cell cycle occur?

before the restriction point