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Flashcards in Principles of Immunisation Deck (9)
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1

Vaccination is what form of immunity?

Acquired active artificial

2

Give 6 types of vaccines and examples of what they are used against

Live attenuated - MMR
Killed - Polio
Toxoid - DTaP
Subunit - Influenza
Conjugate - Hep B/HPV
DNA - (not licensed for human use)

3

Describe live attenuated vaccines

Sample is attenuated (allowed to establish multiple generations) in a lab to reduce pathogenicity
Causes very strong immune response

4

Killed vaccines

Inactivated with formaldehyde
Causes a weaker immune response
Often requires an adjuvant

5

Toxoid vaccines

Toxin is treated with formalin
Retains its antigenicity but loses its toxicity
Only induces immunity against the toxin, not the originating organism

6

Subunit vaccines

Only antigens that stimulate the immune response best, usually epitopes
Contains no infectious agent
Increasing purity reduces immunogenicity - may need an adjuvant

7

Conjugate vaccines

Where a pathogen's antigen is a carbohydrate, it isn't very effective.
A protein is added to it before inoculation to aid the body recognise and produce antibodies for it

8

What are the contraindications of vaccination?

Temporary - pregnancy/febrile illness
Permanent - allergy/immunocompromisation

9

What is an adjuvant?

A substance that enhances the immune response to an antigen
e.g. aluminium salts (causes mild inflammation but allows the generation of immunological memory)