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Flashcards in Principles of Immunisation Deck (9)
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Vaccination is what form of immunity?

Acquired active artificial


Give 6 types of vaccines and examples of what they are used against

Live attenuated - MMR
Killed - Polio
Toxoid - DTaP
Subunit - Influenza
Conjugate - Hep B/HPV
DNA - (not licensed for human use)


Describe live attenuated vaccines

Sample is attenuated (allowed to establish multiple generations) in a lab to reduce pathogenicity
Causes very strong immune response


Killed vaccines

Inactivated with formaldehyde
Causes a weaker immune response
Often requires an adjuvant


Toxoid vaccines

Toxin is treated with formalin
Retains its antigenicity but loses its toxicity
Only induces immunity against the toxin, not the originating organism


Subunit vaccines

Only antigens that stimulate the immune response best, usually epitopes
Contains no infectious agent
Increasing purity reduces immunogenicity - may need an adjuvant


Conjugate vaccines

Where a pathogen's antigen is a carbohydrate, it isn't very effective.
A protein is added to it before inoculation to aid the body recognise and produce antibodies for it


What are the contraindications of vaccination?

Temporary - pregnancy/febrile illness
Permanent - allergy/immunocompromisation


What is an adjuvant?

A substance that enhances the immune response to an antigen
e.g. aluminium salts (causes mild inflammation but allows the generation of immunological memory)