Acute Inflammation Flashcards Preview

Principles of Disease HQ > Acute Inflammation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Acute Inflammation Deck (30)
Loading flashcards...
1

Define acute inflammation

Protective changes as a response to injury in order to maintain the integrity of a higher organism

2

List the cardinal signs of acute inflammation

Rubor (redness)
Calor (heat)
Tumor (swelling)
Dolor (pain)
Loss of function

3

Give the 6 causes of acute inflammation

Micro-organism (infection)
Mechanical (trauma)
Chemical (pH)
Physical (heat/cold)
Necrosis
Hypersensitivity

4

Name the three processes which give rise to acute inflammation

Vessel radius changes
Permeability changes
Neutrophil movement

5

Describe how changes in vessel radius give rise to acute inflammation

Increased flow of blood is caused by successive arteriolar constriction/dilation followed by smooth muscle relaxation
(Poiseulle's Law)

6

Describe how changes in permeability give rise to acute inflammation

Swelling is caused by net movement of material (plasma/protein/fibrinogen/immunoglobulin) out of capillaries
Causes an increase in blood viscosity leading to stasis (decreased/low flow rate)

7

Describe how neutrophil movement gives rise to acute inflammation

Loss of normal laminar flow is caused by RBCs gathering in the centre of the blood vessels and neutrophils gathering at the edges near the endothelium
Neutrophil;
Margination (movement to edges)
Pavementing (adherence to endothelium)
Emigration (movement from endothelium to extravascular tissues)

8

How is acute inflammation resolved?

Isolation and destruction of inciting agent
Phagocytosis of debris by macrophages
Epithelial regeneration
Exudate filters away
Normalisation of vascular changes

9

What is meant by the margination of neutrophils?

Movement to edges of blood vessels

10

What is meant by the pavementing of neutrophils?

Adherence to endothelium

11

What is meant by the emigration of neutrophils?

Movement from endothelium to extravascular tissues

12

Give three benefits of acute inflammation

Rapid response (due to cardinal signs - protection)
Neutrophil action
Localisation (by plasma proteins)

13

Give the possible outcomes of acute infection?

Resolution
Suppuration (pus formation)
Organisation
Development of chronic inflammation

14

What suffix is given to conditions of acute inflammation and give some examples

-it is

e.g. meningitis, pancreatitis, appendicitis

15

What is the role of the neutrophil in acute inflammation?

Chemotaxis
Adherence
Release of granule contents
Phagocytosis and destruction of foreign antigens

16

What are the contents of neutrophil granules?

Oxidants and enzymes

17

What happens to neutrophils when they release the contents of their granules?

They die and contribute toward pus formation (suppuration)

18

Name two plasma proteins involved in acute inflammation

Fibrinogen
Immunoglobulins

19

What is the function of fibrinogen in acute inflammation?

Parts cleaved off to form fibrin
Polymerisation to form clots
Hems in the exudate to localise the process

20

What are mediators of acute inflammation?

- on endothelial surface
- released from cells into plasma

21

What are the functions of mediators of acute inflammation?

Vasodilation
Increased permeability
Neutrophil adhesion
Chemotaxis
Itch & Pain

* Gradation/balance exists - not just an on/off mechanism; alternating actions depend on timing/circumstance
* Favour or inhibit the inflammation, depending on bodily need

22

Give some example of mediators of acute inflammation and their functions

Histamine - vasodilation and increased permeability

Serotonin & Prostaglandins - vasoconstriction

Leukotrienes - increased permeability and smooth muscle constriction

Hydrogen peroxide - amplification of other mediators

23

What is the difference between bacteraemia and septicaemia?

The presence of bacteria in the blood versus their growth

24

What is septic shock an example of?

Systemic effect of acute inflammation

25

Give the symptoms of septic shock?

- peripheral vasodilation
- tachycardia
- hypotension
- pyrexia
- haemorrhagic skin rash

26

What causes the tachycardia associated with septic shock?

During vasodilation, systemic vascular resistance decreases
Cardiac output must adjust to the changes in SVR in order to regulate blood pressure

BP = CO X SVR

When CO can no longer cope, the hypotension comes in

27

How is pus organised in acute inflammation?

In an abscess surrounded by a pyogenic membrane

28

What is pyaemia?

Pus in the bloodstream

29

What is empyema?

Pus in a pre-existing hollow cavity

30

Describe organisation as a possible outcome of acute inflammation?

Formation of granulation tissue for healing and repair

Leads to fibrosis and scar tissue formation

Made from;
new capillaries/fibroblasts/collagen/macrophages