Flashcards in after WWII Deck (47):
which two groups have been fighting for control of China since the late 1920s? Who led each group?
Mao Zedong led the communist
chiang Kai-shek led the nationalists
what side wins the Civil War in 1949 in China and why?
The communist win because they had the support of the peasants
what happens to the nationalists after the civil war in China ?
they flee to Taiwan
what was the great leap toward in 1958-61 ? what were its goals ?
The great leap forward goal was to increase its industrial and its agricultural output and catch up to the west.
peasants begin to work in communes where there were thousands of people working on thousands of acres of farmland.
what were the effects of the Great Leap Forward ?
it was a major disaster.
agricultural output the declined and a major famine occurred about 30 million died over a three-year period.
what was the cultural revolution of 1966-76 ? what were the goals of the cultural revolution?
The goal was to crash any opposition to Mao by removing officials who Mao saw as disloyal
another goal was to destroy all old ideas or traditional ways of life and any western influence
who were the red guards in China ?
they were students that banded together to carry out maos orders. They attacked anyone or anything seeing as "counterrevolutionary. They carried with them the little red book
What were the results of the cultural revolution ?
years of chaos and turmoil
deaths of hundreds of thousands
economy suffered China's development held back
closing of schools and universities for several years
who was deng xiaoping
he became the new leader of China in 1978 after Mao
he wanted to modernize China and improve the living standards of Chinese people
what were the four modernizations
The goal of the four modernizations was improve China in four areas specifically agriculture industry science and defense
what were Dengs economic methods
he stresses using capitalist free-market economics ideas for example the communes were now ended and farmers were now given land to use
he encouraged foreign trade and foreign investment in China
"it doesn't matter if the cat is black or white..."
"to get rich is glorious"
what were the result of Dengs policies
incomes and living standards increased significantly
economy grown but the govt is still communist and people do not have basic democratic rights and freedoms
what was Tiananmen Square massacre of 1989 ? goal ?
protests in the capital of being because students demanded more freedom and democratic rights and to end corruption.
what were the results of Tiananmen Square ?
crush protestors with force
one child policy
tensions over Taiwan
China took back Hong King
What happens when India is granted independence ?
India is granted independence from Britain and is partitioned
how is India partitioned ? and why?
into India and Pakistan .
this happens because Muslims feared they would be mistreated by the Hindu majority and wanted their separate nation aka Pakistan.
what is non alignment in India ?
a policy Nehru followed that meant India stayed neutral in the Cold War
what cultural tensions occurred in India ?
tensions violence and conflict between Hindus and Muslims.
tensions over the region of Kashmir
divided between India and Pakistan
people there want independence or to unite with Pakistan
tensions with Pakistan
the two nations fought a war in 1971
key issue is control over Kashmir
threat of war alarming because both have nuclear weapons
why did the African nationalist demand independence ?
they wanted to govern themselves and not be under foreign rule.
key nationalist leaders in Africa
kwame Nkrumah helped achieve independence in Ghana
jomo Kenyatta helped Kenya
what were some challenges faced by newly independent nations
developing their economies
were dependent on former parent country
ethnic conflict and vivola wars in Africa
genocide in Rwanda > Hutus and Tutsis ex artificial borders
what was the apartheid
it was a policy placed on South Africa in 1948 where the white South African government enforced strict racial segregation and discrimination.
how do the apartheid affect life in South Africa
there were separate public facilities
separate living areas
black South Africans had no voting rights
limited ability to travel in South Africa
What was the ANC
the African national congress which was an organization founded in 1913 to fight for the rights of blacks and end the apartheid.
who was Nelson Mandela
was the leader of the anc and was most important leader in the struggle
who was archbishop Desmond tutu
important religious leader and helped organize opposition to the government
what methods were used to fight against the apartheid
violent and non violent
what was the sharpeville massacre in SA
when the govt forces opened fire and killed 69 protestors the ANC was outlawed
what was Soweto uprising
when black South Africans protest govt policies and hundreds die
who was fw deKlerk
elected South African president and decided to end apartheid and freed Mandela from prison
what was the result of the first free election in 1994
black South Africans were able to vote and Mandela was elected president
what was zionist movement
when the Jews believed that they had a right to form a nation in Palestine.
what was the Balfour declaration
the British governments support for a Jewish homeland in Palestine .
what was the partition plan ? and what was initial reactions in Palestine ?
UN came up with a plan to partition Palestine into two states . one Jewish and one Arab state l. the Jews accepted and Arabs rejected.
what happened when the Jews declared the creation of the new state of Israel ?
the Arab nations reacted by attacking Israel but the Israelis defeated the Arabs in a series of wars
Arab Israeli wars
1948- Israel defeats Arab countries
1956 Suez Canal- Egyptian president got Suez Canal but Egypt defeated
what was the Six day war in 1976
3rd war that Israelis won and obtained
what was the Yom Kippur war
the 4th war the Arabs attacked Israel and developed stalemate
what was the plo and its goals
the plo was the Palestine liberation organization. which formed in the 60s to help bring about destruction of Israel and the creation of a Palestinian state
who was yasir Arafat
he was the leader of the plo and used terrorism
what was the intifada
it was a Palestinian uprising that broke out in gaza and West Bank. it's goal was to for Israelis out.
what were camp david accords
Israel and Egypt peace agreement .
Israel agreed to give the Sinai peninsula and Egypt agreed to recognize Israel. historic