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Flashcards in soviet union Deck (19):

social class structure

most Russians were peasants in society was dominated by a small land owning class

most peasants stayed very poor

serfs life did not improve


backwardness of Russia

Russia was economically underdeveloped

it was far behind other nations like Britain France and Germany

Russia was not fully industrialized it had begun to undergo the changes later than other key nations



Russian culture language etc. forced on non-Russians


Russo Japanese war

Russia suffers a humiliating defeat byJapan

many people blamed czar Nicholas for this and other problems


bloody Sunday 1904-05

peaceful protesters march on the czars palace in St. Petersburg they're calling for more rights and better living conditions

The palaceguards shot and killed hundreds of protesters

the czars popularity declined further criticism


revolution of 1905

the czar reacts to pressure from the people by agreeing to make reforms to try to satisfy them

issues October manifesto which pledges more rights for the people and agrees to set up legislature called the dDuma

these changes do not satisfy the people's demand for reform they do not go very far and demand for change continues


March revolution

czar Nicholas abdicates

The provisional government forms (kevensky)

they stay in world war one



Anger at czars abuse of power people have no rights peasants were poor and lack land land owned by nobility Russian losses in World War I shortages of food


Novembre revolution

lenin and the Communists (bolsheviks ) over through the provisional government and seize power

causes of this revolution include the terrible economic conditions such as food shortages and inflation

The horrible losses the Russian army was suffering in World War I pull out ww1

remember that Lenin did a good job of the live support for the communist with the slogan peace land bread

The communist set up a government that can be described as a one party dictatorship as Lenin as the dictator


civil War

lasted three years 1918 to 1921

The Reds defeated the whites

The red were the Bolsheviks and the whites were anti-Communist including czar supporters

renames Soviet union or USSR


lenins economic policy

create a classless society so try to abolish all private property and the government to control of the land factories etc.

this did not work so well and the economy declined linen decided to allow some private ownership of land was called the new economic policy a.k.a. an NEP economy improved



after linens death a power struggle breaks out Stalin beats out Trotsky for leadership of USSR

by late 1920s Stalin is the unchallenged leader of country



Stalin makes the Soviet union into a total totalitarian state this type of system the government tries to have total control over every aspect of peoples lives


forms of govt control

censorship no freedom of speech music or movies newspapers magazines were all censored by government

propaganda was used to build up the idea of a stalin and communism were great seen in the works of art schools films etc.

no freedom of religion allowed religion was banned churches were closed

Secret police people suspected of being opposed to Stalin in the communist government were often arrested and sent to prison camps in Siberia or executed


Great purge

Stalin wanted to make sure that there were no threats to his power he has hundreds of thousands of people jailed or executed for supposedly committing crimes many of these victims were loyal Communist Party officials who Stalin became suspicious of


command economy

Stalin gets rid of Lenins NEP and instead he sets up a command (planned) economy where the government has total control of business and factories

five your plans were when the government set production targets for every industry it's key goal was to increase production of heavy industrial goods such as steel, machinery and tractors


collectivization of agriculture

agriculture culture was collectivized and peasants were forced to give up their small farms and join together to work on collective farms run by the government(Private property abolished)

many peasants resisted collectivization and were killed or imprisoned rich peasants known as kulaks were targeted for elimination

collectivization lead to famine especially true in Ukraine The government sees grain from the farms much of it was exported to earn money for industrialization


result of Stalin economic plan

millions of people died as a result of famine especially in Ukraine

i'll put a heavy industrial goods increases but there was a lack of every day consumer goods

agricultural output did not increase significantly major food shortages existed


absolute rule of the Czars

Czars rules as aristocrats absolute rulers
ruled according to divine right (God given authority)
The people had few rights