Flashcards in Ageing Deck (18):
Are we getting more older people in the population because we are living longer?
Technically no, we are just getting more people to live out their natural life expectancy
What are some social engineering type factors that influence life expectancy?
better living condition, clean water, better nutrition, free from disease, medical intervention, vaccination
What is cellular senescence?
the phenomenon where cells lose the ability to divide in response to DNA damage
What is organismal senescence?
the ageing of whole organisms
Why does the body system need to keep a reserve? How does this reserve change as you age?
the reserve is there to respond to challenges. Every system loses reverse capacity with age, but the speed of deterioration can vary across different systems
What is the biomarker of frailty?
low-grade, chronic inflammation with abnormality in endocrine and coagulation systems
What is the level of cytokines associated with frailty relative to normal level?
2-4 fold higher than normal
what's the postulated effect of chronic inflammation in frailty?
catabolic effect on muscle mass and strength + related to anorexia
What are some inflammatory cytokines involved in frailty?
CRP, IL6, TNF-a
What is sarcopenia?
ageing of muscle
T/F We lose more type I fibre than type II
False, we lose more fast twitch type 2 muscles with age
What's the function of fast twitch muscle?
fine, precise and rapid movement
What's Fried's criteria for frailty?
unintentional weight loss (3 or 4 kg in a year in old people), weakness, exhaustion, slow walking speed, low physical activity.
How to you define someone as "frail" using Fried's criteria
the person is frail if he has more than 3 proposed criteria
What is co-morbidity?
concurrent presence of more than 2 chronic disease
T/F Disability, co-morbidity and frailty are different concepts
True, you can be frail without being having disability or co-morbidity
What's the risk of having fragmented health services
lots of doctors treating a single patient leading to increased risk of drug interaction and a lack of coordination between specialists