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Jonathan's Neuroscience > Cognition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cognition Deck (79):
1

What is sensation?

sensory and neural encoding of incoming physical information

2

What is perception?

interpretation of sensory information

3

How is cognition related to sensation and perception?

sensation constructs perception, and cognition integrates different perceptions to make meaning

Conversely, higher cognition - our thoughts - can also influence the way we sense

4

Why is it useful to study cognition?

1) diagnosis, such that cognition breaks down in specific pattern if brain is damaged

2) understand the best approach in treating patients, thus improving patient outcome

5

How is cognition studied in animals and humans?

animals - lesion studies
humans - case studies

6

What is an example of lateralisation of brain function?

left hemi for language, right hemi for visuospatial function

Note that this is not absolute and does not take into account the individual differences

7

In Luria's brain-behaviour theory, what are the basic units and what are their functions?

brainstem - regulation of arousal and muscle tone

posterior cortical zone - governing sensory information

anterior cortical zone - planning, executing and verifying behaviour

8

The cortical zones are separated into primary, secondary and tertiary zones, which zone is most topologically organised? Which one develops the latest?

primary zone

tertiary zone develops the latest

9

Why is cognition usually not one-to-one with the respective brain area?

cognition is a system, and damaging any part of the system can cause impairment

10

What is the adaptive significance of emotion?

we can recognise the emotion of others and respond with emotions of our own

11

Which system is involved in emotion? Which areas are within this system?

limbic system, consisting of cingulate gyrus, amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus

12

What is Kluver-Bucy syndrome? What kind of symptom does the animal experience?

bilateral anterior temporal lobe removal

symptoms include tameness or loss of fear due to amygdala dysfunction

13

What is the role of orbitofrontal cortex in emotion?

identification and expression of emotion (you can still feel it)

14

Is emotion lateralised?

Yes, lesion to right orbitofrontal cortex is worse than that of the left

15

The reduction of which three areas tend to be related to depression?

Amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, hippocampus

16

What is the executive function of frontal lobe?

processes responsible for goal directed, purposeful, emotional, and social behaviour

17

the pre-frontal cortex is divided into which three sub-cortex?

dorsolateral cortex
medial prefrontal cortex
orbitofrontal PFC

18

List the functions of dorsolateral cortex

working memory
response selection
planning and organising
hypothesis generation
insight
moral judgment

19

What is response selection?

the ability to change response (strategy) in order to solve a problem

20

What is insight? What is "insightless"?

the ability to recognise the problem

Cannot recognise the problem, think they are fine. Treatment is thus very difficult

21

what is the blood supply for dorsolateral cortex?

middle cerebral artery

22

What is working memory?

capacity to keep info in mind and use it
like remembering digits in reverse, which is taking in information and manipulate it

23

What is medial prefrontal cortex's function?

associated with emotion and motivation

24

What will a MPFC lesion result in?

akinetic mutism, apathy, initiative, indifference
don't talk, don't initiate, general lack of engagement
note that the motor programs are intact, and this is not a mood issue or depression

25

Do MPFC share some functions with orbito PFC?

Yes, some emotional, motor and attention programs are also associated with OPFC

26

Which area is highly connected to orbito PFC?

the limbic area, associated with emotional process

27

What will a lesion in OPFC result in?

lack of inhibition on emotion, cognitive function and social responses. Tend to be very impulsive, cry and laugh inappropriately

28

What is cognitive disinhibition

defect associated with OPFC. It describes the failure to stop a task

29

T/F OPFC lesion causes the patient to make a lot of mistakes

True, patients tend to take a short time to make decisions and make a lot of mistakes

30

What is the blood supply for MPFC?

supplied by anterior cerebral artery

31

what is the blood supply for OPFC?

anterior cerebral artery and middle cerebral artery

32

The frontal lobe is ______ in terms of maturation and also degenerates the _______

slowest
fastest

33

Why are teenagers more likely to engage in risky behaviours

because frontal cortex is not fully developed, there unable to make the right decision

34

Why is "executive dysfunction" a better term than "frontal dysfunction"

you can damage other places in the brain to get cognitive dysfunction. Frontal implies that the lesion is specially in the frontal lobe

35

what are some positive symptoms of executive dysfunction

distractibility
social disinhibition
emotional instability
perservation
impulsivity
hypergraphia

36

what is perservation

unable to stop doing a task and move on
keep doing the task even if it is done (you just repeat)

37

what are some negative symptoms of executive dysfunction

lack of concern
restricted emotion
deficient empathy
failure to complete task (not the same as "finish" task)
lack of initiation

38

What does the tower of London test for?

ability to plan

39

What does the stroop test test for?

ability to inhibit a response

40

What does the Rey complex figure test test for?

ability to plan

41

What is aphasia?

disorders of language as a result of brain damage

42

What are some causes of acute aphasia?

stroke
penetrating head injury
surgical resection

43

What kind of aphasia can a migraine patients have?

paroxysmal episodic

44

Which hemisphere is important in language for the majority of people

left

45

What is the role of right hemisphere for language in people who are left brain dominant

It plays a role in understanding language: the tone, interpretation, and the social aspect of language

46

What are the two components of language system?

language production - construct sentences that make grammatical sense

language selection - choosing appropriate content

47

What is fluent aphasia?

Due to a Wernicke's lesion, there is impaired selection of content. Sentences have proper grammar, but the content makes no sense

48

What is non-fluent aphasia

Due to a Broca's lesion, there is loss of grammatical structure in the sentences, but there is intact selection of content

49

What is arcuate fasciculus?

a hypothetical tract that links Wenicke's to motor/premotor and Broca's area

50

One of the syndromes of Wenicke's aphasia is fluent jargonistic language output, what are the two types?

Neologism - consistently use a made up word

Paraphasic error - use boap instead of boat, elevator instead of escalator

51

What are the other syndromes of Wenicke's aphasia?

fluent jargonistic language output
impaired comprehension
right quadrantanosia, because lesion is often associated with visual tract

52

What are the syndromes of Broca's aphasia?

non-fluent, effortful language output
telegrammatic (brief sentences)
preserved comprehension (thus very distressing)
right face and arm weakness (very close to motor cortex)

key words are preserved

53

What is conduction aphasia caused by?

lesion in the arcuate fasciculus

54

What are the two mechanisms of aphasia recovery?

contralateral transfer (occurs more in children)

ipsilateral re-organisation (reorganise function to surrounding area)

55

Which mechanism leads to best aphasia recovery?

bilateral reorganisation - a combination of contralateral transfer and ipsilateral re-organisation

56

T/F bilateral temporal lobe resection is common

False, although unitemporal resection is common

57

T/F retrograde amnesia can recover overtime

True, patients can shorten the retrograde amnesia state overtime

58

T/F Procedural memory and working memory will be lost if we remove the inferior temporal lobe

False, patients generally lose only the ability of forming new long memory

59

What is non-declarative memory?

unconscious memory like skills and habits

60

What is declarative memory? What are the two types of declarative memory?

memory that we can consciously recall as knowledge

episodic - events in time related to you as a person
semantic - non-contextual facts

61

What are the three major parts of the hippocampal system? What are their functions?

hippocampus - consolidation of memory
entorhinal cortex + perirhinal cortex - take up memory

62

How is memory lateralised in a left brain dominant individual?

verbal memory lateralised to the left
non-verbal memory lateralised to the right. Right side is more to do with visuo-spatial association and face recall

63

What is paired associate learning and what can it be used for

give unrelated words (table + grass) and ask patients to learn the unrelated association

it's the best way to assess declarative memory.

64

what are the four possible categories of memory impairment

degenerative disorder
cerebrovascular disorder
transient disorder
surgical resection

65

What is the specific pathology of temporal lobe epilepsy

hippocampal sclerosis, tissue is atrophied, gliosis and hardening of hippocampus

66

What is the clinical presentation of temporal lobe epilepsy?

declarative memory disturbance

67

Lesions in which 5 other structures can cause amnesia?

mammillary bodies
retrosplenial cortex
mesial temporal region
bilateral anterior thalamus lesion
basal forebrain

68

What is the difference between H.M's amnesia and transient global amnesia?

TGA has a very sudden on-set and there is no disruption of self-identity

69

T/F post-traumatic amnesia can spontaneously resolve

True, and the duration is an assessment of the severity

70

What is the most important risk factor of Alzheimer's?

age

71

How do patients with mild cognitive impairment present?

self-reported short history
mild objective memory impairment
unaffected general cognitive function and ability to perform daily tasks

72

T/F asymptomatic Alzheimer's patients will have plaques in the neocortical association cortex

False, they only have plaques in the transentorhinal region

73

What is the first cognitive test to diagnose someone who may have Alzheimer's?

paired associated learning test

74

How do you differentiate mild cognitive impairment and anxiety disorder in an interview?

with MCI, you specifically do badly in episodic memory. With anxiety disorder, you tend to do badly across the board

75

How is cognitive rehab done in the modern days?

active participation model with main goal being recovering skills related to daily tasks.

It focuses on enhancing participation and reducing functional limitations

76

T/F cognitive impairment is often linked to anxiety and depression

True, post-stroke depression for example is very common

77

What are the two categories of cognitive interventions

environmental modification and compensatory strategies

78

What kind of environment tend to help brain recovery

dark, quiet environment

79

what are the two strategies of compensatory cognitive intervention

internal - improve one skill set so other skills can be used
external - use cues to aid deficit (diaries, apps)