Cranial Nerves Flashcards Preview

Jonathan's Neuroscience > Cranial Nerves > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cranial Nerves Deck (59):
1

Which CNs are purely sensory

CNI, II, VIII

2

Which CNs are purely motor

CNIII, IV, VI, XI, XII

3

Which CNs are mixed nerves

CN V, VII, IX, X

4

Which motor column is most medial?

somatic motor

5

What is the order of motor column from medial to lateral

somatic, brachial, visceral

6

What is the order of sensory column from medial to lateral

visceral, somatic, special sensory

7

which CN nuclei are in the somatic motor column

CNIII, IV, VI, XII

8

which CN nuclei are in the brachial motor column

trigem and facial in pons
glossopharyngeal and vagus in medulla

accessory in the spinal cord

9

which muscles does CNV supply?

muscles of mastication
tensor tympani
tensor veli palatini

(T for T)

10

which muscles supply the muscles of the pharynx and larynx

Vagus for all pharynx and larynx muscles except for stylopharygeus, supplied by the glossopharyngeal

11

What is the name of nucleus enclosing both CNX and CNIX

nucleus ambiguus behind the inferior olive

12

What are the nuclei for visceral efferents

Edinger-Westfal nucleus for CNIII in midbrain
superior salivatory nucleus for VII in pons
inferior salivatory nucleus for IX in medulla
dorsal motor nucleus of X in medulla

13

the nucleus __________ is responsible for visceral afferent, which has inputs from CN ____, ____, and _____ . The visceral afferents have ______ and _______ functions

nucleus solitarius
VII, IX, X
taste
autonomic

14

Which nerve in the visceral afferent nucleus does not have autonomic function?

VII

15

Nucleus Solitarius extends from ________ to ________. The rostral portion is called ______, receiving inputs from ______ and ______. The caudal portion is called ________, which is mainly responsible for control of ________ function

pons
nucleus gracilis
gustatory nucleus
taste buds
palate
visceral sensory division
cardiovascular

16

Which nerves are included in the somatic sensory nucleus?

V, VII, IX, X

17

Meningioma can damage the olfactory nerve, how is the sense of smell affected?

anosmia, but also get sudden episodes of hallucinating smell, typically a smell of burning rubber

18

What is the most common cause of anosmia?

common cold

19

Where do the axons from olfactory bulb project to?

gustatory nucleus and insula cortex

20

Oculomotor nerve innervates four of the six extraocular muscles. Trochlear nerve innervates _________ and abducent innervates the _______. All three nerves exit together in the __________, along with the ______ branch of ______

superior oblique
lateral rectus
superior orbital fissure
opthalmic
trigeminal nerve

21

Which nerve exiting the superior orbital fissure is the most susceptible to injury? Why?

CNVI, because it has a long way to travel

22

what somatic motor function does CNIII have?

somatic motor for 4/6 extra-ocular muscles
elevates eyelid via levator palpebrae superioris

23

what PNS function does the ocularmotor nerve have

constriction of the pupil
focussing of the ciliary muscle

24

Are the PNS and somatic motor functions of CNIII segregated at brainstem?

Yes, they arise from different nuclei, but travel together through the SOF

25

why do cranial nerves often get affected together when there is a disease

CNs often exit in groups

26

which nerves exit from the auditory canal

facial and vestibulocochlear

27

which nerves exit from the jugular foramen

vagus and accessory

28

what are the three reflexes used for testing brainstem function

pupillary light reflex
blink reflex
gag reflex

29

what the pupillary light reflex assess?

the function of the midbrain

30

what is the efferent and afferent nerve for pupillary light reflex

afferent via optic nerve at the retina
efferent via ocularmotor tot he iris

31

where are the autonomic fibres of CNIII from?

Edinger-Westfal nucleus

32

a common viral cause of cranial nerve damage is?

Herpes Zoster (Shingles) on CNV. Virus lies dormant in trigem ganglion and can reactivate when the immune system is down

33

Trigeminal is mainly a ______ nerve, supplying the ________ function for the face, but it also has _______ motor fibres, innervating muscles of _________ and also the _______ in the inner ear

sensory
somatic sensory
brachial
mastication
tensor tympani

34

T/F Trigem supplies the sensory function of the brain tissue only

False, it also supplies the meninges

35

Trigem has nuclei that run from midbrain to spinal cord. What are the four nuclei?

mesencephalic
chief sensory
spinal trigeminal nucleus
motor nucleus

36

Pain sensation of trigem is located in the ________, proprioception is in __________, and everything else goes to _________

spinal trigeminal
mesencephalic
chief sensory

37

which division of trigem does the trigem motor nerve travel with?

mandibular V3

38

What does the corneal blink reflex test for?

pons function

39

Sensory input of corneal reflex is mediated by ________ of ________, which synapse onto interneurons ________, and excite efferent neurons of _______, and then the eys blink

opthalmic division
trigeminal nerve
bilaterally
facial nerve (on both sides)

(so that blinking occurs on both eyes when stimulating only one)

40

Facial nerve is predominantly a ______ nerve, supplying the ______ of the face. However it also has ________, ________, and ________ functions

brachial motor
muscles
PNS efferent
visceral sensory
somatic sensory

41

Which muscles does the facial nerve innervate in the middle ear? What is it important for?

stapedius
dampening sound

42

digastric muscle is supplied by which nerves?

facial and trigem

43

How does Bell's Palsy occur?

damage to the lower motor neurons of CNVII

44

Facial nerve travels from the brainstem through the _________, first giving a branch called ________. It then gives motor supply to ________ and also ________ branch for taste in the _______ of the tongue. Finally, it gives a posterior motor branch called ________ and also 5 anterior motor branches forming _______ at the parotid gland

internal acoustic meatus
greater petrosal
stapedius
chorda tympani
anterior 2/3
posterior auricular
pes anserinus

45

What is the function of greater petrosal branch?

PNS to the eye for lacrimation

46

Does the facial nerve supply the parotid gland?

no, it just passes through the substance of parotid

47

Ocularis oris is supplied by which branch of facial nerve?

temporal

48

Acoustic neuroma is characterised by ________ and ______. Because CNVIII travels with ______ through the ________, there also be loss of _______. Additionally, the lesion may also press on ______ to cause _______

gradual hearing loss
dizziness
CNVII
internal acoustic meatus
taste
CNV
facial pain

49

Glossopharyngeal supplies the visceral efferent for ______ on the ______ of the tongue. It is the primary sensory nerve for _______ and _______. It also supplies the PNS function to ______ and motor function to ________, which is responsible for ________

taste
posterior 1/3
pharynx
middle ear
parotid gland
stylopharyngeus
palate elevation

50

CNIX exits via ________ and it follows _________ to reach the _________ and tongue

jugular foramen
stylopharyngeus
oropharynx

51

Which muscles does the vagus supply

muscles of the soft palate, pharynx, larynx, upper oesophagus and palatoglossus

52

Gag reflex is used to assess the function of __________. It receives sensory input from _______ and motor out from _______

medulla
glossopharyngeal
vagus

53

What are the symptoms of spinal accessory nerve damage?

flaccid paralysis, muscle wasting and atrophy of sternomastoid and upper part of trapezius

54

where does CNXI arise from? How does it enter and exit the cranium?

upper 5-6 of cervial spinal cord
via foramen magnum, and exit via jugular foramen with vagus

55

What movements is CNXI responsible for

Shoulder shrug and head turning

56

If you damage your left CNXI, which way can't you turn?

cannot turn to the right (the opposite side)

57

What happens when you damage CNXII

tongue deviation to the damaged side and atrophy

58

T/F CNXII deficit is usually congenital

True if the damage is isolated to only CNXII. Because other nerves travel with CNXII, there are usually several CN deficits occurring at the same time

59

where does the CNXII exit?

hypoglossal foramen