Development of Nervous System Flashcards Preview

Jonathan's Neuroscience > Development of Nervous System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Development of Nervous System Deck (30):
1

Describe the process of neuralation

1) notochord induction forming neural plate
2) neural plate deepens to form neural groove
3) groove folds together in midline and break free to form neural tube
4) neural tube goes to form brain and spinal cord

2

What does the centre hollow space of neural tube become?

the ventricular system

3

Neural tube is initially ________ thick with a ______ centre. There is a rostral to caudal gradient of formation, and ______ is older

one cell
hollow
rostral end

4

Describe the order of neural fold closure as they are independent events

closure goes in the order of
1) mid back
2) head to just above top of the neck
3) front of forehead
4) back of the head, between step 1 + 2
5) tail end

5

Failure of closing the tail end = ?
Is it common? what are the possible consequences?

spina bifida
yes, it is the most common defect of neural fold closure
get a blister of open neural tube + movement deficit in the lower limbs

6

What is the most severe form of neural fold defect?

anencephaly - still born baby lacking higher brain centre

7

What are the three initial swellings of neural tube in the rostral end? How many cell layers are in each swelling?

Prosencephalon, mesencephalon, rhombencephalon

1 cell thick still

8

What are the two distinct fissures during tube segmentation?

cephalic and cervical flexures

9

What does prosencephalon split into?

telencephalon and diencephalon

10

List the PNS neural crest derivatives

DRG, SNS/PNS/ENS ganglia, Schwann cells

11

How are optic vesicles formed? What do they become? What is the significance of it?

outpockets of diencephalon, and go on to become the retina. Retina injury has CNS pattern

12

What do neural crest cells give rise to apart from PNS structures?

melanocytes, muscle/cartilage bones of the face, dentine

13

T/F developing cells are very mobile

True, neural crest cells can migrate a fair distance

14

Enteric neural crest migration begins at the _______ all the way to _______ . it is the _______ network of migration. The same migrating pattern can be seen in ______ cells

oesophagus
anus
largest
cancer

15

What type of cell is the neuroepithelium of neural tube?

columnar

16

Describe the process of adding layers to generate cortex

proliferation of cells occur in the ventricular zone and daughter cells migrate to outer surface via radial glial cells.

The process is "inside-out" - adding cells on the inside, but cells migrate to the outside

17

What is a stem cell

cells that can self renew indefinitely and remain undifferentiated

18

Which genes can mutate and result in smooth, unfolded brain surface and mental retardation?

Reelin and DCX

19

What is the most common cause of male autism?

Fragile X syndrome, affecting the connectivity of brain

20

T/F neurons controlling distal muscles are more medial in the spinal cord

False, the organisation follows topographic organisation such that neurons for limbs are located laterally

21

T/F Motor neurons are ventral to sensory neurons

True, "dorsal" root ganglion houses sensory neuron cell bodies, and they are located dorsally

22

In spinal cord development, the notochord releases _______ to induces the formation of _________ , which will in turn use the same molecule to induce formation of _______ in the _______ horn

sonic hedgehog
floor plate
motor neurons
ventral

23

how do interneurons form?

motor neurons release motor-neuron factor to induce formation of interneurons

24

Describe the first step of axonal growth

when the embryo is still small, pioneer axons lay down the initial scaffold of axon tracts for later axons to navigate

25

What is a growth cone

the tip of axon and the site of axon extension.
Cell body just adds material for axons to extend

26

How do axons know where to go?

they follow gradients of chemical in the embryo, which can either attract or repel them

27

What is the critical period

refinement of the imperfect, infant nervous system, leading to permanent changes that establish mature functional nervous system.

Can occur postnatally

28

T/F visual input from left and right eyes are segregated

True, and this can be seen in visual cortex where there are alternating bands

29

What happens if we sew shut a cat's eye during the critical period?

the sewed eye is likely to become permanently blind, and it's not because the retina is not working, but because the visual cortex is not responding

30

What is the principle of plasticity in critical period

use it or lose it, and it's the relative activity that's important
repetitive stimulus is potentiated
unused information is depressed