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Jonathan's Neuroscience > Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (207):
1

What are the two groups of skull bones?

Cranium and facial bones

2

Describe the layers of the cranial bones

an external and an internal layer of compact bone, with spongy bone (diploe bone) inbetween

3

What are the four sutures of the cranium?

coronal suture anteriorly
sagittal suture in the midline
lambdoid suture between parietal and occipital (coronal as well)
pterion suture

4

What is the pterion suture bound by?

frontal bone supero-anterior
sphenoid bone infero-anterior
parietal bone supero-posterior
temporal bone infero-posterior

5

Which artery lies under the pterion suture?

middle meningeal artery

6

What are the two parts of frontal bone? and what is name of the junction between the two parts?

vertical part forming the forehead
horizontal part forming the roof of the orbits

superior orbital margin

7

T/F is the parietal bone completely flat?

No, it is mostly flat, but moulds to the shape of the brain

8

What is one prominent landmark of occipital bone

external occipital protuberance

9

What are the five parts of the temporal bone

1) flat squamous part
2) anterior projection, the zygomatic process
3) posterior projection, the mastoid process
4) styloid process inferiorly
5) petrous part, inward projection

10

Where does a depressed fracture of the cheek occur?

at the zygomatic process of the temporal bone

11

What is special about the mastoid process?

it is thick and full of air space

12

What is special about the styloid process?

gives attachment for muscles of the oral cavity and the pharynx

13

Sphenoid bone looks like a bat. What are the 3 major parts?

body, lesser wing antero-superiorly, greater wing inferior to lesser wing

14

What is found in the body of sphenoid bone, where there is a depression?

the pituitary gland

15

Not very relevant - body of the sphenoid is also known as?

Sella turcica

16

What divides the greater and lesser wings

superior orbital fissure

17

What are the characteristics of the two major parts of ethmoid bone in the cranial floor?

1) cribiform plate: with little holes for olfactory nerve fibres
2) crista galli, the middle segment that pokes up

18

What is within the
1) anterior cranial fossa
2) middle cranial fossa
3) posterior cranial fossa

1) horizontal plate of frontal bone, cribiform plate of ethmoid, lesser wing
2) greater wing, petrous part of temporal, with the wedge forming boundary to posterior cranial fossa
3) occipital bone

19

which cranial fossa is superior orbital fissure found?

middle

20

What is special about superior orbital fissure

it provides direct communication between orbit to cranial cavity

21

Superior orbital fissure is the beginning of an arch of foramina. What are the foraminae?

foramen rotundum, foramen ovale, foramen spinosum

22

Where is the optic canal?

medial to the superior orbital fissure, in the lateral body of the sphenoid

23

Where is foramen lacerum? What goes through the foramen?

at the medial junction between greater wing and petrous wedge. Medial to both foramen ovale and spinosum

Nothing goes through. It is covered by a membrane when meninges is intact

24

There are three foramens in the petrous wedge of posterior cranial fossa, what are they?

internal auditory meatus, jugular foramen inferior to the meatus, and hypoglossal foramen medial to jugular foramen

25

What is the central large opening found in the posterior cranial fossa?

foramen magnum

26

From superficial to deep, list out all layers of structures + potential spaces from the skull onward

cortical bone, diploe bone, cortical bone, extra-dural space, dura, sub-dural space, arachnoid, subarachnoid space, pia, brain tissue

27

Out of the three spaces in the meninges, which one is an actual space (not a potential space)

sub-arachnoid space, for CSF collection

28

What are dural septa?

dural projections into the sub-divisions of cranial cavity

29

what is the function of dural septa

restrict rotational forces and displacement of the brain in response to trauma

30

Name the three main dural septa

falx cerebri, tentorium cerebelli, falx cerebelli

31

Where is the falx cerebri? What are the attachments?

in the midline between two cerebral hemispheres

Crista galli and cribiform plate anteriorly, along the sagittal plane, then to the occipital protuberance

32

which plane is tentorium cerebelli in?

the horizontal plane

33

tentorium cerebelli provides the roof for _______, separating _______ above from ________ below

posterior cranial fossa
occipital lobe
cerebellum

34

Falx cerebelli is found beneath the __________, and is also in the ________ plane, same as _________

tentorium cerebelli
sagittal
falx cerebri

35

Do the dural septa separate the hemispheres completely?

no, they only project part-way

36

What is the name of the dural fold over the body of sphenoid?

diaphragma sellae

37

What structure does diaphragma sellae enclose? What pierces through it?

pituitary gland
the infundibulum of the pituitary

38

what are the two layers of dura mater?

outer periosteal layer and inner meningeal layer

39

What are dural venous sinuses?

endothelial lined spaces that exist between the outer and inner layers of dura which are associated with dural projections

40

Where do dural venous sinus receive blood from? What is the significance of it?

veins of the brain
spongy bones via diploic veins
exterior skull via emissary vein

infection of skull wound can spread into venous sinus to meningitus or encephalitis

41

What is the name of dural sinus at the top of falx cerebri?

superior sagittal sinus

42

where is the inferior sagittal sinus?

at the inferior margin of falx cerebri

43

Inferior sagittal sinus joins the ________ to form the _________

great cerebral vein
straight sinus

44

where does the straight sinus run?

in the inferior margin of falx cerebri, where it meets the tentorium

45

where does the superior sagittal sinus meet the straight sinus?

at the confluence of sinuses

46

T/F a lot more blood is collected posteriorly

True

47

Where do the right and left transverse sinuses run?

around the margin of tentorium

48

where do the transverse sinuses drain from?

the confluence of sinuses

49

What is the major branch of transverse sinus. Where does it drain into?

sigmoid sinus down the jugular foramen into the internal jugular vein

50

What are the two minor branches of the transverse sinus?

superior and inferior petrosal sinuses

51

Where does the superior petrosal sinus drain into

into the cavernous sinus

52

what gives the vascular supply for the skull and meninges?

Small meningeal artery

53

Which artery provides the most important supply for the skull and meninges? It is a branch of which artery?

Middle meningeal artery

maxillary artery

54

Middle meningeal artery is likely to be damaged with a fractured ______

pterion suture

55

How do arteries from outside the skill enter the brain?

via the foramen spinosum into the middle cranial fossa

56

How does middle meningeal artery branch out from the pterion?

it splits into anterior and posterior divisions and groove the interal aspect of the skull

57

Where does the middle meningeal artery lie? A fractured pterion is likely to cause _________

in the extra-dural space

extra-dural haematoma

58

Why can a tear in superior sagittal sinus be self-limiting

a tear will cause sub-dural haemorrhage, and because it's venous blood, it is at a much lower pressure, therefore it can be self-limiting

59

What are the borders of the scalp?

it extends from external occipital protuberance to supraorbital margin, over the zygomatic arches laterally

60

What are the five layers of the scalp?

skin
connective tissue
aponeurosis
loose connective tissue
pericranium

61

Which layer contains the neurovascular structure?

the connective tissue

62

what is the aponeurosis layer of the scalp made of?

occipital-frontalis, with an anterior frontalis belly and a posterior occipital belly

63

What is the function of occipital-frontalis

it's the layer of muscle that moves the scalp. I.e raise the eyebrow

64

what is the function of loose connective tissue?

allow the superficial layers to slide over the pericranium

65

What is the significance of the rich blood supply over the connective tissue layer?

with laceration, there can be profuse bleeding

66

What are the three reasons contributing to severe bleeding due to surface laceration?

Rich anastamoses

frontalis and occipitalis pull the wound apart

tissue fibrous septa adhere to vessels so they are unable to constrict and promote clotting

67

What is the difference between the layers of scalp and face

the face does not have loose connective tissue

facial muscles replace the aponeurosis

68

what are the groups of facial muscles?

circular muscles as sphincters

longitudinal muscles as dilators, which can be either depressors or levators

69

What are the attachments of the facial muscles

skin superficially and fascia deeply

70

What is the embryonic origin of facial muscle? Where nerve supplies the muscles?

from the 2nd pharyngeal arch, supplied by CNVII

71

Describe the sensory supply for the head

trigeminal nerve supplies everything in front of the ear, C2 and C3 supply everything behind the ear

(cervical plexus was not mentioned)

72

What is trigeminal neurogia?

syndrome characterised by brief episodes of intense pain over one of the division of CNV

73

where is the CNV ganglion?

in the apex of the petrous part of the temporal bone

74

CNV has three divisions, which foramina do they go through?

opthalmic - superior orbital margin

maxillary - foramen rotundum

mandibular - foramen ovale

75

what are the main arteries from internal carotid that are supplying the face?

supra-orbital branch and supra-trochlear branch

They are branches of opthalmic artery

76

What is the most important branch from the external carotid artery supplying the face? Describe its course

facial artery

it runs in a tortuous course from the inferior angle of mandible to the medial angle of the eye

77

What are the four branches of the external carotid artery beyond the facial artery?

posterior auricular artery
occipital artery
superficial temporal artery
maxillary artery

78

what is the major venous drainage for the face? How is it different to facial artery?

the facial vein, which is posterior to facial artery

it is straighter

79

Where are emissonary veins located on the face? What is the significance?

in a triangular area in the centre of the face

some blood drains into the cavernous sinus so the wounds within the area must be carefully treated

80

from front to back, list the lymph nodes of the face

submental, under the chin
submandibular, under the mandible
pre-auricular
parotid
posterior auricular
occipital

81

Where do the lymph drainage of the face go to?

all drain into cervical nodes in the neck

82

what is the function of parotid gland?

secretion of saliva

83

where is it located?

inferior to zygomatic process
anterior to mastoid process
superior to angle of mandible
posterior to masseter
superficial to styloid process

84

what is it wrapped in? what is the significance?

it is wrapped in parotid fascia

in patients with mumps, there can be extreme pain because the fascia allows the internal pressure to build up

85

describe the course of the parotid duct

emerge from the anterior border of the parotid gland and runs superficial to masseter until its anterior edge. It then pierces the buccinator to enter the oral cavity near the second upper molar

86

what are the structures wtihin the parotid gland from superficial to deep

facial nerve
retro-mandibular vein
external carotid artery

87

where are the lymph nodes in the parotid? what is the significance?

scattered throughout the gland.

In patient with cancer, if the surgeon needs to operate on the parotid, the nerve, vein and artery can potentially be in danger

88

where does the facial nerve exit

stylomastoid foramen between mastoid and styloid process

89

what branches does the facial nerve give?

posterior auricular branch to back of the scalp

pes anserinus anteriorly in the substance of parotid

90

what muscles does the posterior auricular branch innervate?

occipitalis, digastric and stylohyoid

91

what are the five branches of pes anserinus

temporal
zygomatic
buccal
mandibular
cervical

92

what is the retromandibular vein formed by?

superficial temporal artery superiorly and maxillary vein anteriorly

93

what does facial nerve injury cause?

facial droop, partial or complete paralysis

94

what's the most common cause of facial nerve injury?

bell's palsy

95

What causes cleft lip and palate?

failure of the facial process to merge around either side of the pre-maxilla

96

What are the three major components of outer ear?

auricle, lobule, and external auditory meatus

97

What is the function of the auricle?

collecting sound and directing it to the ear

98

T/F the entire external auditory meatus is cartilaginous

False, the medial 2/3 is bony

99

What is the sensory supply for the external auditory meatus?

vagus - posterior and inferior

auriculotemporal nerve of trigem - anterior and superior

100

What is the significance of trigeminal nerve innervating the external auditory meatus?

pain can refer the to teeth, or vise versa

101

T/F tympanic membrane is concaved so the middle is deeper into the ear

True, and this is important for the collection of sound

102

If you shine some light down to the membrane, where will the light defect to?

the antero-inferior quadrant, if the ear is healthy

103

what are the two cavities of the middle ear?

tympanic cavity proper

epitympanic recess superiorly

104

What can you find in the epitympanic recess?

lots of air space, and it communicates with mastoid process

105

What is the direction of the auditory tube?

antero-inferior to nasopharynx

106

What is the function of auditory tube?

equalisation of pressure

107

Why shouldn't you sky dive when you have a cold?

mucus can block up the auditory tube to prevent equalisation of pressure, so there may be excessive movement of the TM and pain

108

What are the three bones of the middle ear?

malleus
incus
stapes

109

Why are middle ear infection more common in children?

the auditory is more horizontal, allowing bacteria to migrate

110

What are the two muscles of the middle ear, and what are their nerve supply?

tensor tympani - Trigem

Stapedius - facial

111

What is the function for the muscle of the middle ear?

auditory reflex - they contract when the sound amplitude is too high, preventing excessive energy from entering the inner ear

112

What is the function of chorda tympani?

CT is a branch of facial nerve. It provides the special sensory for anterior 2/3 of the tongue

113

What are the two openings to the inner ear?

oval window connecting to cochlea

round window for releasing pressure within the inner ear

114

What is the promontary?

a large swelling on the medial surface of the middle ear. It is used as a landmark

115

Where is the inner ear chamber in relation to the surrounding bony structure?

It is enclosed in the petrous temporal bone

116

What are the structures within the cochlea?

there is a space called the bony labyrinth, filled with perilymph, and a suspended membranous labyrinth, filled with endolymph

117

Where is the vestibule?

it is between the semicircular canal and the cochlea, communicating with the round window

118

Which arterial systems make up the circle of Willis?

the internal carotid system and the vertebrobasilar system

119

T/F Circle of Willis looks almost identical in most people

False, the CoW is very variable in reality

120

What is the function of the anastomoses in CoW

where there is a blockage, blood can be diverted to from other arteries

121

Describe the course of the internal carotid artery

It comes off the common carotid, then enter the carotid canal into the middle cranial fossa lateral to the optic chiasm. It will then give off its branches

122

Describe the course of the vertebral artery

comes off the subclavian and traverse through transverse foramina of the vertebral column into the foramen magnum. It then joins to form the basilar artery

123

What is the functional territory of anterior cerebral artery

Medial part of frontal and parietal lobes
Most importantly, the motor and somatosensory area for the lower limbs

124

Describe the course of anterior cerebral artery

it is the anterior branch for the CoW, which travels anteriorly initially, but then does a sharp turn posteriorly and splits into two branches. Pericallosal branch around corpus collosum, and callosomarginal brnach higher up in the longitudinal fissure

125

What would a lesion most likely cause?

contralateral hemi-paresis and hemisensory loss of the lower limbs

126

Which lobes does the middle cerebral artery supply?

Lateral parts of frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes
insula


127

What is the functional territory of MCA?

motor and sensory cortices for most of the body
parietal-occipital association
language area in temporal

128

What functions can be lost with a lesion in MCA

contralateral sensory loss for upper limb + face
hemiparesis
some aphasia

129

Which lobe does the posterior cerebral artery supply?

medial and inferior surfaces of temporal and occipital lobes

130

What is the main functional territory of PCA?

the visual cortex

131

What will a lesion in PCA most likely lead to ?

visual problem, homonymous hemianopia

132

Which main artery branch do pontine arteries come off

the basilar artery

133

What do the small perforating branches usually supply ?

deep structures, the core of cerebrum and the associated deep nuclei

134

What do the anterior perforating branches supply?

optic chiasm
anterior hypothalamus

135

What do the posterior perforating branches supply?

ventral midbrain
posterior hypothalamus
some thalamus

136

The lenticulostriate arteries are branches of ______

middle cerebral artery

137

What do the lenticulostriate arteries supply?

mainly the basal ganglia and internal capsule

138

The anterior choroidal artery comes off the ________

internal carotid artery (after opthalmic)

139

What does the anterior choroidal artery supply?

deep lateral hemisphere
optic tract
lateral ventricles
hippocampus

140

PICA is a branch of _______ while AICA is a branch of _______. While they mostly the ______, they also supply parts of the _________. Just before the posterior cerebral artery, ________ comes off the basilar artery, which gives a little branch to supply the ______ of the midbrain

vertebral artery
basilar artery
cerebellum
brainstem
superior cerebellar artery
inferior colliculi

141

The medulla gets three separate blood supplies. What are they, and which area do they supply?

anterior spinal artery - medial strip of medulla
vertebral artery - the olives and ventral-lateral medulla
PICA - dorsal lateral medulla

142

What is medial medullary syndrome caused by?

cerebrovascular accident associated with anterior spinal artery

143

What will a stroke in anterior spinal artery damage?

hypoglossal nucleus - ipsilateral atrophy of tongue
medial lemniscus - contralateral somatosensory hemideficit
pyramids - contralateral hemiparesis

144

Anteriorly, the _______ runs down the _________ of the spinal cord. Posteriorly, there are two branches of ________ . These arteries are all reinforced by _______ from the aorta, and they send _______ to supply the inner grey matter

anterior spinal artery
ventral medium fissure
posterior spinal arteries
segmental arteries
perforating branches

145

What are the bony and cartilagenous structures forming the external nose

frontal process of maxilla laterally
two nasal bones in the midline

2 lateral and two alar cartilages, with a septal cartilage in the midline

146

T/F ethmoid bone is located in the posterior nasal cavity

False, the sphenoid forms the posterior cavity with palantine and ethmoid anterior to it

147

T/F vomer is in the midline of the basal cavity

True, the vomer in the midline forms the nasal septum

148

What is rhinorrhea?

leakage of CSF out of the meninges, via the cribiform holes and into the nasal cavity

149

What are the functions of the highly vascular mucosa of the nasal cavity?

trap foreign particle
humidify air
warm up the air so it's closer to body temperature

150

What is the function of the cilia in the inferior respiratory area of the nasal cavity?

actively encourage mucous to be expelled

151

Where is the vestibule and how is it different to the rest of the nasal cavity?

it's the bit where fingers can easily reach

It's lined by skin and hair so it's a lot stronger

152

What's the function of concha? Which wall is it found on?

creates turbulent air flow
three conchi on the lateral wall

153

T/F conchi take up a lot of space in the nasal cavity

True, hence why nose can be so easily blocked up if there is excessive mucous

154

What's the name of the space inferior the conchi

meatus, and there are three of them - superior, middle, and inferior

155

What can be found in the meatus?

paranasal sinuses

156

What is the function paranasal sinuses?

to lighten the head so we can keep our heads up against gravity. This is an energy saving mechanism

157

What is the clinical significance of paranasal sinuses?

they are direct openings of the nasal cavity, so bacteria can migrate into it to cause inflammation and pain

158

T/F sinusitis generally occurs in the ethmoid sinus

False, it generally occurs in the maxillary sinus, because it's the only one that's not located superiorly, and draining is more difficult

159

What's the nerve supply for the 4 sinuses?

frontal, ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses are supplied by V1

Maxillary sinus by V2

160

Where is the opening to sphenoid sinus?

posteriorly in the nasal cavity, inferior to the superior concha

It opens via a recess called sphenoethmoidal recess

161

Where are the openings for ethmoid sinus?

posterior - under the superior meatus, anterior to sphenoid sinus opening

middle - bulla ethmoidalis, inferior to middle concha

anterior - anterior hiatus semilunaris

162

Which sinus openings are located in the hiatus semilunaris?

frontal
anterior ethmoidal
maxillary

163

What's located inferior to the inferior meatus?

the orifice of nasolacrimal duct

164

Where is the lacrimal gland?

supero-lateral part of the orbit

165

What is the blood supply to the inferior quadrant of nasal cavity?

greater palatine artery

166

what is the blood supply to the superior quadrant of the nasal cavity?

ethmoidal arteries

167

what is the blood supply to the posterior quadrant of the nasal cavity?

sphenopalatine artery

168

The rupture in which artery will cause the most severe nose bleed?

sphenopalatine artery

169

what is the blood supply to the anterior quadrant of nasal cavity?

the lateral wall - facial artery
medial aspect - supply by vessels to the lips

170

Where is the anastomoses for all nasal vessels?

posterior to vestibule

171

What is the nerve supply to the nasal cavity?

the antero-superior half is supplied by V1

the posto-inferior half is supplied by V2

172

Where's the palantine gland?

at the roof of the oral cavity directly under the mucosa

173

What is it importance to have an oral cavity roof?

Food doesn't enter the nasal cavity

important for producing suction, important for infant feeding

174

Which muscles are found in the floor of the oral cavity?

Mylohyoid laterally
Geniohyoid medially
digastric inferiorly

175

Which nerve gives off the lingual nerve?

mandibular nerve of CNV

176

What are the four types of papillae on the tongue?

fungiform in anterior 2/3
foliate in the posto-lateral aspect
valate along the sulcus
filiform for grip

177

Where are the taste buds?

embedded in cells of the papillae (except for filiform papillae)

178

Where is the lingual tonsil?

in the posterior 1/3 of the tongue

179

What are the four extrinsic muscles of the tongue? What are their actions?

palatoglossus - elevation
styloglossus - retraction
hyoglossus - depression
genioglossus - protraction

180

Which nerves supply the muscles of the tongue?

Hypoglossal, except for palatoglossus supplied by vagus

181

What are the three intrinsic muscles of the tongue?

superior longitudinal
inferior longitudinal
transverse/vertical

182

What are the four types of teeth we have?

incisors
canine
premolar
molar

183

Which nerves supply the teeth?

Inferior alveolar and superior alveolar

184

What are the three salivary glands?

parotid
submandibular
sublingual

185

Where does the duct of submandibular gland run?

run in the floor of the lingual frenulum

186

What are the three internal muscles of the pharynx?

salpigopharyngeus
palatopharyngeus
stylopharyngeus

187

What is the action of salpingopharyngeus

attaches to the auditory tube. Contraction elevates pharynx and help equalising pressure of auditory tube

188

What is the action of palatopharyngeus

elevate/depress the soft palate
also pull the pharynx up

189

what are the two arches of the oropharynx? What can be found between them?

palatoglossal arch
palatopharyngeus arch

palatine tonsil inbetween

190

Which nerves supply the muscles of the pharynx?

All supplied pharyngeal branch of the vagus, except for stylopharyngeaus (CNIX)

191

What are the two muscles of the soft palate? What are their actions?

levator veli palatini
tensor veli palatini

Both to elevate the palate. TVP exaggerates the movement of LVP by putting tension on soft palate

192

Which muscles will depress the soft palate?

palatoglossus
palatopharyngeus

193

What is the nerve supply for tensor veli palatini

T for T
trigeminal

194

From top to down, what are the tonsils of the Waldeyer's ring?

adenoid
tubal
palatine
lingual

195

Where is the superior and inferior boundaries of the larynx

epiglottis superiorly
C6 inferiorly

196

From the anterior view, list out the structures of the larynx from top to bottom

hyoid bone
thyrohyoid membrane
thyroid cartilage
cricothyroid membrane
cricoid cartilage

197

How is cricoid cartilage different to tracheal cartilage?

It is a complete ring, but there are also other structural differences

198

What is found posteriorly on the cricoid cartilage

arytenoid cartilage

199

What are the two movements of the vocal muscles?

slide
abduction/addiction

200

what is the name of the superior mucosal fold?

vestibular fold, the false vocal fold

201

What are the six intrinsic muscles of the larynx

lateral cricoarytenoid
posterior cricoarytenoid
transverse/oblique arytenoid
lateral cricoarytenoid
cricothyroid
vocalis

202

What does the superior laryngeal nerve supply?

Internal - mucosa above vocal ligament
external - cricothyroid muscle

203

What happens when we damage the external laryngeal branch?

lose control of cricothyroid, which is responsible for lengthening the vocal ligament. Damage = unable to hit high pitch

204

Which nerve supplies most of the vocal muscles? What happens if we damage the nerve

recurrent laryngeal nerve

hoarse voice and stridor

205

Why do we get stridor in damaging recurrent laryngeal nerve?

because there is a lot more effort needed to produce voice

206

what are the arterial supplies for the thyroid?

superior thyroid artery (external carotid)
inferior thyroid artery (subclavian)

207

Where should an emergency airway be?

in the cricothyroid membrane, between the thyroid and cricoid