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Flashcards in Airport Communications Deck (23)
1

Air Traffic Control Towers (ATCT)

Established at Controlled Airports

Provide for the safe, orderly, and expeditious flow of traffic on and in the vicinity of an airport

Control air traffic operating on and in the immediate vicinity of the runway

2

Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON)

Provides radar services to a specific terminal area

Approach/Departure Control

Military Controllers refer to this service as RAPCON (Radar Approach Control)
•Grand Forks Approach/Departure

3

Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCC)

ARTCC Facilities are referred to as “Center” on the radio

Center is the controlling agency for all controlled airspace not controlled by a local facility (ATCT, TRACON)

4

Flight Service Station (FSS)


When are they used?
What does EFAS stand for?
What EFAS can they provide?

Pilot Weather Briefings

•Preflight

•Enroute Flight Advisory Services (EFAS)
-Relay ATC Clearances
-Flight Plan Filing
-Enroute Communications
-VFR Search and Rescue Services

NOTAMS

5

UNICOM/MULTICOM

Established as a common set of frequencies to provide airport information at places where control towers do not exist

Self Announce

Request Wind/Runway Information

6

Radio Detection and Ranging (RADAR)
Primary and Secondary

Primary Radar
•Radio waves are reflected off of the aircraft surface to the RADAR antenna and seen by the controller as a target

Secondary Radar
•ATC assigns a squawk code which is entered into the transponder and is used to track aircraft

7

Transponder

Modes of operation (4)
Discrete Codes (4)

Modes of Operation
•OFF – unit is off
•STANDBY – prepares unit for use
•ON – Position Only
•ALT – Position and Altitude (Mode C)

Discrete Codes
•1200 – VFR
•7500 – Hijacking
•7600 – Radio Failure
•7700 - Emergency

8

91.215 (3)
ATC transponder and altitude reporting equipment and use.

•You must have a transponder with altitude reporting capability when operating in
oClass A, B, and C airspace
oAbove and below Class B and C airspace
oWithin 30 NM radius from the primary airport within Class B airspace form the surface to 10,000’ MSL
oAbove 10,000’ MSL

•You must turn your transponder on if one is installed when flying in controlled airspace

•If your transponder fails enroute, ATC may allow you to continue to your destination

9

Transponder Phraseology:

Squawk (number)
Squawk Standby
Squawk Altitude
IDENT
Squawk VFR

“Squawk (number)” – operate transponder on designated code
“Squawk Standby” – set transponder to standby mode
“Squawk Altitude” – set transponder to ALT mode
“IDENT” – press ident to make target brighter
“Squawk VFR” – set transponder to 1200

10

Radio Ettiquette:

LISTEN
THINK
MONITOR

LISTEN before you transmit
•Avoid overlapping another radio call
•Allow for readbacks

THINK before keying the transmitter
•Know what you are going to say

MONITOR the radio
•Situational/Positional awareness

11

General Radio Phraseology:

Initial Call

Subsequent Calls

Initial Call
•Who you are calling
•Who you are
•Where you are
•What you want

Subsequent Calls
•Repeat back pertinent information and end with your callsign
oRunway Assignment
oHold Short Instructions
oHeadings
oAltitudes

12

General Radio Phraseology: Altitudes

Example:
Say...
500
10,000
15,200
4,900

Altitudes
•500 – “fife hundred”
•4,900 – “four thousand, niner hundred”
oNOT “four point nine” or “forty nine hundred”
•10,000 – “one zero thousand”
•13,500 – “one tree thousand, fife hundred”

13

General Radio Phraseology: Speed and Direction

Speed
•120 knots – “one two zero knots”

Direction
•Magnetic Heading 070 – “heading zero seven zero”
•Wind Direction 220 – “wind two two zero”

14

Uncontrolled Airports:

Always Self-announce position and intentions:
Departure (4)
Arrival (5)

Departure
•Before taxiing
•Before taxiing onto runway
•Takeoff
•Direction of departure from the area

Arrival
•Monitor Frequency
•Initial Call at 10 NM from the airport
•Entering downwind
•Report base
•Report final
•Leaving the runway

15

Frequency Congestion

UNICOM
NORDO

UNICOM frequencies serve many uncontrolled airports.
During busy times limit radio use to the extent possible

No Radio Aircraft (NORDO) – aircraft are not required to listen to or make traffic advisories

•While on downwind look to see if any aircraft are taxiing to the runway

•While on base look to see if any aircraft are on final

16

Compliance with ATC Clearances and Instructions 91.123

YOU MUST NOT:

YOU MUST:

You must not
•Deviate from an ATC clearance
•Operate an aircraft contrary to an ATC instruction

You must
•Notify ATC as soon as possible when deviating because of an emergency
•Submit a detailed report of an emergency within 48 hours
oIf requested by ATC

17

Class D Airports : Calling Radios

Departing (4)
Arriving (4)

Departing the area
•ATIS
•Ground
•Tower
•Departure (if service exists)

Arriving into the area
•ATIS
•Approach (if service exists)
•Tower
•Ground

18

Class C Airports: Calling Radios
Departing (5)
Arriving (4)

Departing the area
•ATIS
•Clearance Delivery (VFR aircraft must obtain a clearance out of the airspace)
•Ground
•Tower
•Departure

Arriving into the area
•ATIS
•Approach (contact within 20 NM of the airport, but prior to entering the Class C airspace)
•Tower
•Ground

19

Class B Airports: Calling Radios
Departing (5)
Arriving (4)

Departing the area
•ATIS
•Clearance Delivery (VFR aircraft must obtain a clearance out of the airspace)
•Ground
•Tower
•Departure

Arriving into the area
•ATIS
•Approach (you must have a specific clearance to enter Class B airspace)
•Tower
•Ground

20

VFR Flight Following

Traffic advisories ares serviced by?
How do you use?

Traffic advisory services provided by Center in areas under control

To use this service
•Request “Flight Following” when contacting Ground
oTraffic Advisories will terminate leaving

Departure/Approach airspace
•Forgot to ask ground or departing an uncontrolled airport
oContact center frequency for the area and request “Flight Following”

21

Emergencies Frequency

121.500
•Emergency/Guard Frequency

22

Taxi Aid?

Progressive Taxi Instructions
“Student Pilot” advisory to ATC

23

B - C - and above 10,000

NEED MODE C Transponder